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Economic Anthropology: Distribution and Exchange
Distribution: Exchange Relations <ul><li>Once produced, good and service must be distributed </li></ul><ul><li>Three ways ...
Imperatives of Exchange: Background  <ul><li>Marcel Mauss:  The Gift </li></ul><ul><li>Preface: “When two groups of men me...
Obligations of the Gift <ul><li>Obligation to give </li></ul><ul><li>To extend social ties to other person or groups </li>...
Types of Reciprocity: Generalized <ul><li>The obligations underlie the principles of reciprocity </li></ul><ul><li>Recipro...
Types of Reciprocity: Balanced <ul><li>Balanced reciprocity: Direct exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Value of gift is calculated...
Types of Reciprocity: Negative <ul><li>Negative reciprocity: An exchange where </li></ul><ul><li>One party tries to get th...
Case Study: Big Man Complex <ul><li>Big men are headmen with a following </li></ul><ul><li>Following created by doing a fa...
Big Men’s Power: Limits <ul><li>Cannot enforce the obligations </li></ul><ul><li>Subject to competition to other big men <...
Redistribution <ul><li>Process whereby goods and services </li></ul><ul><li>Flow to a central authority (king, chief, gove...
Redistribution: Socialist Model <ul><li>Central feature of command economies </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnographic example: Inca ...
Market Exchange <ul><li>Exchange of goods among many buyers and sellers </li></ul><ul><li>Directly, by  barter,  or </li><...
Market Exchange: Actors <ul><li>Actors are: </li></ul><ul><li>Supplier, whose willingness to sell is directly proportional...
Example: Regional Guatemalan Markets  <ul><li>Case Study: San Francisco el Alto </li></ul><ul><li>Entry: seller pay small ...
Conclusion <ul><li>Economy entails distribution of goods and services </li></ul><ul><li>Still, economy is embedded in soci...
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Economic Anthropology: Distribution and Exchange

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Describes Systems of Exchange. Reciprocity; Redistribution; Market Exchange

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Transcript of "Economic Anthropology: Distribution and Exchange"

  1. 1. Economic Anthropology: Distribution and Exchange
  2. 2. Distribution: Exchange Relations <ul><li>Once produced, good and service must be distributed </li></ul><ul><li>Three ways by which goods are distributed </li></ul><ul><li>Reciprocity: direct exchange of goods and services </li></ul><ul><li>Redistribution: Flow of goods and services to central authority, then returned in different form </li></ul><ul><li>Market exchange: buying and selling through price mechanism </li></ul>
  3. 3. Imperatives of Exchange: Background <ul><li>Marcel Mauss: The Gift </li></ul><ul><li>Preface: “When two groups of men meet, they may </li></ul><ul><li>move away or </li></ul><ul><li>in case of mistrust they may resort to arms </li></ul><ul><li>or else they may come to terms” </li></ul><ul><li>Coming to terms, he called “total prestations” or </li></ul><ul><li>an obligation that </li></ul><ul><li>has the force of law </li></ul><ul><li>in the absence of law </li></ul>
  4. 4. Obligations of the Gift <ul><li>Obligation to give </li></ul><ul><li>To extend social ties to other person or groups </li></ul><ul><li>Obligation to receive </li></ul><ul><li>To accept the relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Refusal is rejection of offered relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Induces hostilities </li></ul><ul><li>Obligation to repay </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to repay renders one a beggar </li></ul>
  5. 5. Types of Reciprocity: Generalized <ul><li>The obligations underlie the principles of reciprocity </li></ul><ul><li>Reciprocity: Direct exchange of goods and services </li></ul><ul><li>Generalized reciprocity: altruistic transactions in which </li></ul><ul><li>gifts are freely given without calculating value or repayment due </li></ul><ul><li>Example: meat distribution among !Kung (upper left) </li></ul><ul><li>Example: family pooling of resources, even birthday presents (lower left) </li></ul><ul><li>Usually occurs among close kin </li></ul>
  6. 6. Types of Reciprocity: Balanced <ul><li>Balanced reciprocity: Direct exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Value of gift is calculated </li></ul><ul><li>Time of repayment is specified </li></ul><ul><li>Selling surplus food (upper left) </li></ul><ul><li>Kula ring, Trobriand Islands </li></ul><ul><li>One trader gives partner a white armband (see map, lower left) </li></ul><ul><li>Expects a red necklace of equal value in return </li></ul><ul><li>Promissory gifts are made until return occurs </li></ul><ul><li>Usually occurs among distant kin </li></ul>
  7. 7. Types of Reciprocity: Negative <ul><li>Negative reciprocity: An exchange where </li></ul><ul><li>One party tries to get the better of the exchange </li></ul><ul><li>from the other party. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: hard bargaining or deception </li></ul><ul><li>Example: horse raids (upper left) </li></ul><ul><li>Example: selling prepared food to a captive market (lower left) </li></ul><ul><li>Usually occurs among unrelated persons </li></ul><ul><li>Variation: silent trade </li></ul>
  8. 8. Case Study: Big Man Complex <ul><li>Big men are headmen with a following </li></ul><ul><li>Following created by doing a favor (e.g. lending pigs) </li></ul><ul><li>Favor is difficult to repay </li></ul><ul><li>Individually, exchange is reciprocity </li></ul><ul><li>Collectively, has appearance of redistribution </li></ul>
  9. 9. Big Men’s Power: Limits <ul><li>Cannot enforce the obligations </li></ul><ul><li>Subject to competition to other big men </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange feasts every 10 years with another big man equal in status </li></ul>
  10. 10. Redistribution <ul><li>Process whereby goods and services </li></ul><ul><li>Flow to a central authority (king, chief, government) </li></ul><ul><li>Where they are sorted, counted, and </li></ul><ul><li>Reallocated </li></ul><ul><li>Classic example: Potlatch (left) </li></ul><ul><li>Historical example: administered trade </li></ul>
  11. 11. Redistribution: Socialist Model <ul><li>Central feature of command economies </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnographic example: Inca labor tax </li></ul><ul><li>Here, men turn the soil with foot plows </li></ul><ul><li>While the women break up the clods </li></ul><ul><li>Modern examples: socialist countries </li></ul><ul><li>Students from across Latin America at Cuban medical school </li></ul>
  12. 12. Market Exchange <ul><li>Exchange of goods among many buyers and sellers </li></ul><ul><li>Directly, by barter, or </li></ul><ul><li>Indirectly, by money and pricing </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Yoruba market in Nigeria (upper left); Haitian market woman (lower left) </li></ul><ul><li>Markets include </li></ul><ul><li>Crowds of buyers and sellers </li></ul><ul><li>Instant information on prices </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom of market entry and exit </li></ul>
  13. 13. Market Exchange: Actors <ul><li>Actors are: </li></ul><ul><li>Supplier, whose willingness to sell is directly proportional to price increases </li></ul><ul><li>Purchaser, whose willingness to buy (demand) is directly proportional to price decreases </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction lead to price equilibrium--no profit </li></ul>
  14. 14. Example: Regional Guatemalan Markets <ul><li>Case Study: San Francisco el Alto </li></ul><ul><li>Entry: seller pay small tax; buyers pay none </li></ul><ul><li>Many buyers and sellers </li></ul><ul><li>Price is constant topic of conversation </li></ul><ul><li>Profit is minimal </li></ul><ul><li>Regional specialization guarantee buyers for product </li></ul>
  15. 15. Conclusion <ul><li>Economy entails distribution of goods and services </li></ul><ul><li>Still, economy is embedded in society </li></ul><ul><li>Big man complex involves politics </li></ul><ul><li>Maintains power by persuasion, negotiation </li></ul><ul><li>Kula ring is also embedded in prestige </li></ul><ul><li>Interconnections will be seen in other topics: social groups and politics </li></ul>
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