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Culture Change, Globalization, and the Future

Culture Change, Globalization, and the Future



Globalization Trends. Culture Change. Theories of Development. Peasant Society. Guatemala: A Case Study

Globalization Trends. Culture Change. Theories of Development. Peasant Society. Guatemala: A Case Study



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    Culture Change, Globalization, and the Future Culture Change, Globalization, and the Future Presentation Transcript

    • Cultural Change, Globality, and the Future Imperialism, Acculturation, and the Third World
    • Globalization and Cultural Change: Introduction
      • Cultural Change
      • Change always present
      • Present era: change has accelerated
      • Globalization
      • Again, present since the empires
      • Industrial era: Process has accelerated via technology
      • Infiltrated into all parts of Third World cultures
    • Leading Trends: Globalization
      • Economic Globalization:
      • Expansion of trade into an international division of labor
      • Core countries
      • Peripheral countries
      • Semiperipheral countries
      • Expansion of a global production system
      • Transportation innovation
      • Communication innovation
      • Labor-intensive processes to Third World
      • More recently: white-collar work
    • Leading Trends: Globalization Impact
      • Peasantization : Settlement of
      • Nomadic peoples
      • Independent cultivators (e.g. Yanomamo)
      • Proletarianization
      • Alienation of land
      • Rural workers
      • Rural-to-urban migration
    • Leading Trends: Earlier Phases of Globalizaton
      • Extermination of existing populations
      • Locations: the Americas, Australia
      • Processes: Diseases, conquest by division
      • Slavery
      • Examples: African slavery by Arabs, then Westerners
      • Contemporary examples: sex slavery in Thailand, forced labor in China
    • Leading Trends: Applied Anthropology
      • Westernization of
      • Technology and Economics
      • Derivative Institutions
      • Politics Religion
      • Positive Aspects of Westernization
      • Health Promotion (though debatable)
      • Elimination of harmful practices such as:
      • Tribal Warfare
      • Clitoridectomy and circumcision
      • Child Marriages
    • Leading Trends: Applied Anthropology
      • Negative Aspects of Westernization:
      • Loss of land
      • Loss of livelihood (India’s cotton):
      • Loss of independence
      • Role of Applied Anthropology
      • Change from subsistence to cash crops
      • Change from indigenous to market-based technology (e.g. fertilizer, demos )
      • Persuasion; changing attitudes
    • Overview
      • Theories of cultural change
      • Nature of peasant society
      • Case study of the twin processes in Guatemala
      • Guatemala at Conquest
      • Guatemala under Colonial/Conservative Rule
      • Guatemala under Liberal Regimes
    • Theories of Social Change
      • Most theories focus on the local
      • Index variables (Sociologists)
      • Entrepreneuralism (Economists; Psychologists)
      • Diffusionism: (Anthropologists)
      • Macroscopic Approaches
      • Dependency Theory (Frank)
      • World-Systems Analysis (Wallerstein)
      • Recent trends: Asian corporatism?
    • States of Economic Growth (Rostow)
      • Traditional stage: culture and attitudes are barriers to development
      • Culture change (premodern) stage : acceptance that change is both necessary and beneficial
      • Take-Off Stage: Investment and savings begin to rise
      • Self-Sustained growth: Self-reinforcing investment and savings rates as society undergoes industrialization; spread of education
      • High economic growth (or era of mass consumption): achievement of high standard of living
    • Theory of Social Change: Pattern Variables
      • Modernization is measured by indicators known as pattern variables
      • Traditional vs. modern measures
      • Ascription vs. Achievement
      • Particularism vs. Universalism
      • Drawbacks
      • Traditionalism masks diversity
      • Ignores wider economies
      • Counterexamples in modern society
    • Theory of Social Change:Psychological variables
      • Strategy
      • Foster entrepreneurial attitudes
      • Select society with this attribute
      • Example: McClelland
      • Need for achievement ( n -ach) : a measurable concept;t
      • One indicator: folk tales
      • Turkey: the boy and the grocer
      • Implication: decision as to whom to aid.
    • Theory of Social Change: Diffusionism
      • Strategy
      • Change in key societal characteristics
      • Demonstration projects
      • Marketing strategies
      • Tzintzuntzan: Mexican case study
      • Pottery marketing encouraged--and resisted
      • Image of limited good: absolute scarcity
      • Dyadic contract: distrust of organizations
    • World Systems Analysis and Allied Theories
      • Dependency Theory
      • Specialization on single exports
      • Primary sector
      • Fostered by industrial countries
      • World-Systems Analysis
      • Core countries (Industrialized, Diversified)
      • Peripheral: (Monocrop, specialized)
      • Semiperipheral (Intermediate, go-betweens)
    • Peasant Society
      • Importance: Linkage to wider society
      • Definitions based on this linkage
      • Kroeber: Part societies with part cultures.
      • Redfield: Two Aspects
      • Great versus Little Tradition
      • Folk-Urban Continuum
      • Fallers: African societies
      • Lack of a long-standing tradition
      • Drawback: Indigenous African states
    • Peasant Society: A Structural Definition according to Eric Wolf
      • The funding metaphor
      • Primitive Cultivators and Peasants both must meet a
      • Caloric fund (food, other necessities)
      • Replacement fund (seeds, house repair)
      • Ceremonial fund (life change, solidarity)
      • Peasants
      • Subject to domain of state
      • Rent fund (taxes, tribute, forced labor)
    • Indigenous Guatemala: Ethnohistorical Overview
      • Pre-Columbian Era (ca 1000-1524)
      • Either city states
      • Or parts of a larger state.
      • Colonization by Spain (1524-1600)
      • Colonial and Early Independence (1600-1871)
      • Liberal Era (1871-Present)
      • Reform Hiatus (1944-1954)
      • Civil War and Aftermath (1960-Present)
    • Pre-Columbian Era
      • Sociopolitical Organization
      • Patrilineal Clans
      • Joint Land Tenure
      • Warring Kingdoms: Quiche dominated
      • Tributaries to various cycles of states
      • Other Attributes
      • Calendrical System
      • Base 20 system of numbers
      • Writing combining glyph types
    • Spanish Colonization
      • Conquest completed by 1540, with a few exceptions
      • Colonial Setup
      • Spaniards perennially understaffed
      • Created congregaciones: forced population relocation to town centers
      • Each town deeded communal land
      • Quota system of labor and tribute
    • Spanish Colonization: Town Government
      • Offices staffed by Indians themselves
      • Enforced the quota system of labor
      • Assessed each household for tribute
      • Administered the allocation of land
      • Handled other daily affairs
      • Structure
      • Caciques became the administrators
      • Alcaldes (mayors) and regidores (council)
      • Police and messengers: the mayores
    • Spanish Colonization: Religious Governance
      • Priests directed the town’s church
      • Sacristans oversaw church’s daily administration
      • Cofradias assigned care of each saint and its celebration
      • Alter boys handled menial chores
      • Syncretism: Each saint “fronted” for indigenous spirits
    • Colonial Guatemala/Central America
      • Guatemala was captaincy-general of Central America (including Chiapas)
      • Spain lost interest in Central America
      • Lacked the gold/silver deposits of New Spain and Peru
      • Spain directed staff to these two colonies
      • Central America came to be neglected
      • In due course, Indians gained autonomy by default
    • Closed Corporate Communities
      • Communities were both closed and corporate
      • Corporate
      • Estate: communal land
      • Body of rights and obligations
      • Rights: usufruct land rights
      • Obligations: community service
      • Focus of service: civil-religious hierarchy
    • Communities as Corporate: Civil-Religious Hierarchy
      • Civil and religious organizations became fused into a theocracy
      • Hierarchy of offices
      • Lowest: messengers, police
      • Middle level mayordomo of cofradias
      • Upper level: mayors, council, top cofrades
      • Obligatory service
      • Financial support of office
      • Yearlong service without pay
    • Communities as Corporate: Civil-Religious Hierarchy
      • Cargo career
      • Youths began as messengers
      • Early to middle age: mayordomos
      • Elders became senior officeholders: councillors. mayors, senior mayordomos
      • Principales (e.g. moletik in Zinacantan)
      • Leveling mechanism
      • Led to reduced stratification
      • Resources directed to community welfare
    • Communities as Closed: Structural Barriers
      • Community Endogamy
      • Community markers
      • Distinctive dress style
      • Linguistic dialects
      • Product specialization
      • Regional markets
      • Rotating: markets held alternate days
      • Solar: central markets
      • Semimonopoly of crafts ensure demand
    • Regional Economies of Colonial Central America
      • Hostile symbiosis between
      • Haciendas
      • Closed corporate communities
      • Conservatives vs. Liberals
      • Conservatives: maintain national self-sufficiency
      • Liberals: Wealth through
      • Economic development
      • External commerce
    • Liberal Reformas: Roots
      • Economic Strategy
      • Country needs to industrialize
      • Key: Produce exports
      • Guatemala: lucrative export proved to be coffee
      • Origins: Costa Rica had a booming coffee economy by 1840s
      • In 1860, coffee proved successful
    • Liberal Reformas: Land
      • Rationale for Land Reforms
      • Needed land “locked” in communal land
      • Incentive lacking for Indians to plant the crop
      • Land Reforms
      • Privatization: only land registered to private individuals was recognized
      • Result: land grabs of communal property
      • Some communities vanished; others restructured
    • Liberal Reforma: Labor
      • Coffee requires massive labor inputs
      • Tending seedlings
      • Weeding
      • Picking and processing beans
      • Labor Reforms
      • Restoration of labor quota system
      • Debt peonage legalized
      • Fincas de mozos: worker-producing farms
      • Vagrancy laws (1930s)
    • Liberal Reforma: Impact on Communities
      • Land became a commodity
      • Communal land mostly nonarable
      • Communities became dependent on labor markets
      • Corporate institutions eroded
      • Politics dominated political part of CRH
      • Religious movements entered communities
      • “ True” Catholicism displace folk beliefs
      • Protestantism entered.
    • Liberal Reforma: Long-term impact
      • Social reforms introduced, reversed
      • Labor legislation
      • Land redistribution
      • Civil war of attrition
      • Guerrilla warfare involved Indian in 1980s
      • Communities bombed, mass emigration
      • Peace Accords of 1996 ended war
      • Guatemala has become part of global system of production.
    • Reactions to Globalization: Latin America
      • Venezuela: Control of Oil Resources under Chavez
      • Cochabamba, Bolivia: Privatization of water followed by return to public
      • Bolivia: Control of gas resources
      • Argentina: Worker takeover of closed factories
      • Mexico: Narrow defeat of a socialist coalition; EZLN revolt
    • Reactions of Globalization: East Asia
      • China: Controlled foreign investment
      • Japan: Independent industrialization
      • The Four Tigers: Independent commerce
      • India: New Silicon Valleys
      • Question in ReOrient: Is East Asian hegemony about to re-emerge?
    • Reactions To Globalization: Fundamentalism
      • Iran: Islamic Republic as reaction to imperialism
      • Iraq and Afghanistan: Protracted warfare, with many precedents
      • Other Fundamentalist Movements: Turkey, Algeria, rest of Middle East
    • Conclusion
      • Corporate capital dominates the world
      • Third World Countries have become industrial appendages
      • Outsourcing of manufacturing and increasingly high-tech industries
      • Reactions have been multifarious—from co-optation to expulsion