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Classical Greece
Classical Greece
Classical Greece
Classical Greece
Classical Greece
Classical Greece
Classical Greece
Classical Greece
Classical Greece
Classical Greece
Classical Greece
Classical Greece
Classical Greece
Classical Greece
Classical Greece
Classical Greece
Classical Greece
Classical Greece
Classical Greece
Classical Greece
Classical Greece
Classical Greece
Classical Greece
Classical Greece
Classical Greece
Classical Greece
Classical Greece
Classical Greece
Classical Greece
Classical Greece
Classical Greece
Classical Greece
Classical Greece
Classical Greece
Classical Greece
Classical Greece
Classical Greece
Classical Greece
Classical Greece
Classical Greece
Classical Greece
Classical Greece
Classical Greece
Classical Greece
Classical Greece
Classical Greece
Classical Greece
Classical Greece
Classical Greece
Classical Greece
Classical Greece
Classical Greece
Classical Greece
Classical Greece
Classical Greece
Classical Greece
Classical Greece
Classical Greece
Classical Greece
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Classical Greece

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Traces the history of Greece from their pre-Hellenic beginnings to its Classical periods.

Traces the history of Greece from their pre-Hellenic beginnings to its Classical periods.

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  • 1. The Classical Greeks The Hellenic Roots of Western Culture
  • 2. Classic: Three Meanings <ul><li>“ First rate,” or “the best of its kind” applies to music, vintage cars, or films—implying enduring quality </li></ul><ul><li>The characteristics of a civilization, one that has enduring significance on later civilizations. </li></ul><ul><li>The stylistic features of a node of expression governed by principles of clarity, harmony, balance, simplicity (moderation), and refinement </li></ul><ul><li>The classic civilizations are so in all three senses of the term </li></ul>
  • 3. The Classic Civilizations <ul><li>The Greek or Hellenic: That which reached its height in the fifth century BCE </li></ul><ul><li>The Hellenistic or “Greek-like” in which a Macedonian named Alexander spread its influence into Asia and Egypt (ca 300 BCE) </li></ul><ul><li>The Roman in two phases: </li></ul><ul><li>The Republic (509-31 BCE) </li></ul><ul><li>Empire (31 BCE-476 CE) </li></ul>
  • 4. Minoan Civilization (2000-1400 BCE) <ul><li>Site of a palace and labyrinthine maze on the Island of Crete, south of mainland Greece. </li></ul><ul><li>Named after King Minos whose minotaur—half man and half bull—was kept in the labyrinth and fed Athenian youths </li></ul><ul><li>The minotaur is killed by the Athenian hero Theseus, freeing Athens from his rule. </li></ul>
  • 5. Minoan Site: Palace of Knossos <ul><li>Archaeological evidence indicates the site was involved in seagoing trade with the Phoenicians, based in Carthage of North Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Knossos had a three-story palace built around a courtyard (left; see pp. 119-121 </li></ul><ul><li>Absence of fortress walls indicate the kingdom thought the sea as security enough </li></ul>
  • 6. Frescos: Bull Vaulting <ul><li>Frescos refer to paintings in which pigment is applied to plastered walls before the plaster is dry </li></ul><ul><li>This fresco depicts the sport of bull-vaulting, still practiced in Portugal; this is found in the Palace of Knossos, Crete </li></ul><ul><li>Woman in front holds the bull by horns; one in back waits to catch the vaulter; as in Egypt, women have lighter skin than men </li></ul><ul><li>Possibly an initiation rite. </li></ul>
  • 7. Frescos: Ship Fresco from Thera <ul><li>Minos was a seafaring culture </li></ul><ul><li>Thera, island near Crete, included a seaport </li></ul><ul><li>The Ship Fresco depicts the seaport of Akrotiri, Thera </li></ul><ul><li>This was clearly an important harbor in the sea lanes of the Mediterranean </li></ul>
  • 8. Statuettes of Minos: Snake Goddess <ul><li>This statuette depicts a bare-breasted women holding a snake in either hand </li></ul><ul><li>Snakes were the symbol of fertility, preceding their interpretations as depictions of evil. </li></ul><ul><li>The woman could be a priestess or a goddess </li></ul><ul><li>Style: flounced skirt, cat perching on her headdress </li></ul><ul><li>Technique: fa ïence, glazing earthenware by using a glass paste </li></ul>
  • 9. Linear B Script <ul><li>Linear B Script is the first phonetic script in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Based on syllables; each symbol represents a syllable rather than a speech sound </li></ul><ul><li>Vowel is the peak of a syllable </li></ul>
  • 10. Mycenaean Civilization (1600-1200 BCE) <ul><li>More of a militaristic peoples with warships vying for control of the Eastern Mediterranean </li></ul><ul><li>The Citadel of Mycenae includes heavily fortified walls expected of a militaristic society </li></ul><ul><li>Storage rooms ensure the population could hold out for weeks </li></ul><ul><li>Peasants and townspeople were accommodated during periods of siege. </li></ul>
  • 11. Agamemnon: Leader in Battle of Troy <ul><li>Death mask (left( is probably that of Agamemnon, king of Mycenae who led the Achaeans against Troy </li></ul><ul><li>Grave of Agamemnon includes jewels and other precious grave goods </li></ul><ul><li>The Mycenaeans attacked Troy (Ilion) around 1200 BCE, resulting in a 10-year war </li></ul><ul><li>This sets the stage of Homer’s epic, The Iliad recounting the last days of the Trojan War </li></ul>
  • 12. The Heroic Age (1200-750 CE) <ul><li>Mycenae was conquered in 1200 CE by the Dorians whose iron weaponry proved superior </li></ul><ul><li>The Homeric epics were passed down by oral tradition for 300 years before being transcribed and 300 more before being reaching their present form </li></ul><ul><li>Little is known about Homer himself, except that if he existed, he was blind </li></ul><ul><li>Represents the culmination of a long tradition of oral history </li></ul><ul><li>The two epics represent a national symbol of present-day Greece </li></ul>
  • 13. Iliad: Paris’s Choice <ul><li>Eris, the Goddess of Discord, throws an apple with the inscription “To The Fairest” in a crowd at a wedding. </li></ul><ul><li>Athena, the Goddess of Wisdom, Hera, the wife of Zeus, and Aphrodite, the Goddess of Love, Sex, Beauty, and Fertility, vie for the apple </li></ul><ul><li>They agree to allow Paris, a moral (and Trojan) to make the judgment. </li></ul><ul><li>Athena promises victory against the Greeks; Hera promises dominion over the known world; </li></ul><ul><li>Aphrodite promises him the love of a beautiful women </li></ul>
  • 14. Choices Have Consequences: The Trojan War <ul><li>Paris gives the golden apple to Aphrodite </li></ul><ul><li>The spurned goddesses, Hera and Athena, conspire with other deities for revenge. </li></ul><ul><li>Paris kidnaps Helen. </li></ul><ul><li>(Daughter of Zeus and Leda) </li></ul><ul><li>Menaleus, King of Sparta and her husband, forms an alliance with other Achaeans (Greeks) to get his wife back </li></ul><ul><li>A ten-year war ensues </li></ul>
  • 15. The Iliad: The Battle of Troy <ul><li>Through an alliance of gods and mortals, war breaks out between the “Achaeans” and the Trojans of Troy, a commercial center in Asia Minor (now Turkey) </li></ul><ul><li>The Iliad is set in the last days of the Trojan war </li></ul><ul><li>The war end when the Trojan Horse, containing Achaean solders, taken to be a gift, is haled onto the fortress, and the Achaeans slaughter the Trojans in a ruse. </li></ul>
  • 16. Iliad: Achilles as Central Character <ul><li>The central figure of the Iliad is Achilles, a powerful warrior who at first refuses to join the Achaeans </li></ul><ul><li>He consents only after a close friend of his, Patroclus, is killed in battle by Hector, the chieftain of the Trojans </li></ul><ul><li>Though half-god, half man, he has a flaw: his heel which his mother Thetis held while dipping into the river Styx, which rendered him invulnerable: </li></ul><ul><li>Except for the heel, which any weapon could penetrate. </li></ul><ul><li>Note the penetration of the arrow in his heel. </li></ul>
  • 17. Iliad: The Main Themes <ul><li>The theme of Achilles that recurs in Greek thought: </li></ul><ul><li>Selfhood vs. community responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>We see it later in Socrates’s refusal to escape after being condemned to death </li></ul><ul><li>Heroic act to prove virtue or excellence ( arête has both connotations) </li></ul><ul><li>Both God and Man displays a range of human emotions: anger, love, grief (over loss of friend) </li></ul>
  • 18. Odyssey: Frustrated Homecoming <ul><li>Odysseus encounters obstacles—adventures—while trying to sail home to Ithaca after the war </li></ul><ul><li>On one occasion, he ix within sight of Ithaca when a strong wind blow the ship out to open sea. </li></ul><ul><li>He has to navigate the ship between Scylla, a monster perched on a rock, and Charybdis, the monster lurking in a large whirlpool </li></ul><ul><li>Allows himself to listen to the Sirens, while tied to the mast and the men rowing with earplugs, so they can hear neither him, nor then; otherwise the ship would have been lost to the rocks </li></ul><ul><li>In the end, he does arrive home, and he slaughters the suitors trying to woo his wife Penelope because of his long absence. </li></ul>
  • 19. The Principal Gods in the Greek/Roman Pantheon <ul><li>Left: Representative Gods from the Parthenon </li></ul><ul><li>Zeus (Rom. Jupiter or Jove): The head of the pantheon of gods </li></ul><ul><li>Hera (Juno): Queen of the Gods </li></ul><ul><li>Ares (Mars): God of war </li></ul><ul><li>Aphrodite (Venus): Goddess of (erotic) love, beauty, </li></ul><ul><li>Athena (Minerva): Goddess of wisdom—and war </li></ul><ul><li>Eros (Amor/Cupid): God of (erotic) love, often portrayed as an infant </li></ul><ul><li>Hades (Pluto): God of the Underworld </li></ul>
  • 20. Other Gods of the Greek/Roman Pantheon <ul><li>Demeter (Ceres): Goddess of Agriculture/Grain </li></ul><ul><li>Persephone (Proserpina): Goddess of the Underworld </li></ul><ul><li>Apollo, Helios (Phoebus): God of the Sun </li></ul><ul><li>Hephaestus (Vulcan): God of metallurgy, fire </li></ul><ul><li>Herakles (Hercules): God of strength, courage </li></ul><ul><li>Artemis (Diana): Goddess of the hunt, the moon </li></ul><ul><li>Hermes (Mercury): Messenger of the gods </li></ul><ul><li>Nike (both): Goddess of Victory </li></ul><ul><li>Poseidon (Neptune): God of the sea </li></ul><ul><li>Hestia (Vesta): Goddess of the hearth, domestic </li></ul>
  • 21. Gods According to Greek Theology <ul><li>Origin myth: Zeus, angered by human evil, destroyed humankind by flood </li></ul><ul><li>Deucalion (Greek Noah), constructs boat for himself and his wife </li></ul><ul><li>“ Bones” of Gaia thrown overboard and new humans, first of whom is Hellen (ancestors of Hellenes or Greeks), spring from the rocks </li></ul>
  • 22. The Humanlike Qualities of the Gods <ul><li>The immortals show all the human emotions: they are amorous, capricious, quarrelsome </li></ul><ul><li>They take sides in human wars (as they do in the Iliad . (upper left: priest and his sons are killed for revealing who were inside the Trojan Horse) </li></ul><ul><li>They live among humans, atop Mount Olympus </li></ul><ul><li>Gods seduce mortal women (Leda and the Swan, who is Zeus, lower left </li></ul><ul><li>They set forth no clear principles of moral conduct </li></ul><ul><li>Oracles (like the one at Delphi) are sources of prophecy and mystical wisdom </li></ul>
  • 23. Greek City States: Principal Sites
  • 24. Greek City States: Economic Basis <ul><li>A rocky environment allowed little agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Best strategy: to grow crops of high value for trade—olives (for the oil) and grapes (for the wine) </li></ul><ul><li>Became master craftsmen of metallurgy, textiles, pottery, and other arts </li></ul><ul><li>Rocky terrain allowed for little overland trade </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, they continued to trade via maritime routes </li></ul><ul><li>Law of comparative advantage illustrated here: crafted goods, oil, and wine for basic foodstuffs like grain from the Near East </li></ul>
  • 25. Greek City States: The Persian Wars <ul><li>Autonomous city states arose in the mainland </li></ul><ul><li>Persian expanded westward and annexed Ionia, a region in Asia Minor </li></ul><ul><li>When Ionians revolted, other city states joined in </li></ul><ul><li>At the Battle of Marathon of 499 BCE, an army of 11,000 men defeated a Persian army twice that number </li></ul><ul><li>The Greeks proceeded to develop an navy and at the Battle of Salamis, defeated the Persian armada </li></ul>
  • 26. City States: Emergence of Democracy in Athens <ul><li>Initially Oligarchic Rule </li></ul><ul><li>Reforms by Solon: abolition of debt slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Formation of the Popular Assembly by 550 BCE, comprising all Greek citizenry </li></ul><ul><li>It operated alongside the Council of Five Hundred and Council of Ten Generals </li></ul><ul><li>Popular Assembly acquired the right to legislate </li></ul><ul><li>Involved direct participation, not representatives </li></ul><ul><li>Women, non-landowners, and slaves still had no such rights </li></ul><ul><li>Success probably attributed to low population: 40,000 eligible, probably 5000 actually participated in open-air market (agora) forums. </li></ul>
  • 27. City States: Sparta Contrasted with Athens <ul><li>Elite of five, though elected, saw themselves as rulers incarnate of the gods </li></ul><ul><li>Male citizens from seven years upward were trained as soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>Physical labor done by helots, prisoners captured in frequent local wars. </li></ul><ul><li>Spartan women, expected to live out ideals of warrior culture, were allowed more freedom than their Athenian counterparts </li></ul><ul><li>Nevertheless, strict order allowed for little creativity </li></ul>
  • 28. Athens under Pericles <ul><li>Pericles: An aristocrat who nevertheless believed in a democratic form of government </li></ul><ul><li>His foreign policies were also high-handed </li></ul><ul><li>Part of the Delian league, he collected monies for a collective defense against the Persians </li></ul><ul><li>Then he appropriate them for Athens to build the Athenian temples demolished by the Persians </li></ul><ul><li>He also tried to dominate the commercial policy of league members </li></ul>
  • 29. Peloponnesian Wars <ul><li>These acts led to a war between Athens and an alliance dominated by Sparta </li></ul><ul><li>The war brought to an end the so-called Golden Age of Athens </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually, this would bring forth the imperialistic forays of Alexander the Great </li></ul><ul><li>It would also generate the Hellenistic Age by which Greek philosophy, literature, and art and architectural styles were spread throughout much of the known world. </li></ul>
  • 30. Two Historians: Herodotus and Thucydides <ul><li>Herodotus: First known historian who combined keen observation with critical judgment </li></ul><ul><li>Did make errors, such as his opinion that non-Egyptian slaves built the pyramid </li></ul><ul><li>Thucydides: </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote a detailed account of the Peloponnesian wars between Athens and an alliance dominated by Sparta, which proved disastrous for Athens </li></ul><ul><li>He himself was a general in the conflict, so that he is a primary source, one who made the actual observations </li></ul>
  • 31. Greek Drama: Overview <ul><li>Characters were all played by men. </li></ul><ul><li>The structure comprised a stage, rather small, and the seating for the audience, which were levels of stairlike seats </li></ul><ul><li>The chorus played an important role of informing the sequence of events. </li></ul>
  • 32. Types of Greek Drama <ul><li>Tragedy: A work with tragic consequences for the hero. </li></ul><ul><li>The hero is usually a noble, often one who has accomplished great things. </li></ul><ul><li>But he has some defect (see tragic flaw) </li></ul><ul><li>That brings him to ruin at last </li></ul><ul><li>Comedy: A work, usually with happy endings </li></ul><ul><li>Only later did it become identified with amusement </li></ul><ul><li>Often a work with realistic ends. </li></ul>
  • 33. Greek Tragedy <ul><li>Hubris: Tragic Flaw </li></ul><ul><li>The hero is a noble </li></ul><ul><li>He is a man (almost always a man) of some accomplishment) </li></ul><ul><li>But he has some defect </li></ul><ul><li>That defect proves destructive to the hero. </li></ul><ul><li>Catharsis: the cleansing of the soul brought about by witnessing a demise </li></ul><ul><li>Tragic Waste </li></ul>
  • 34. Case Study: Oedipus the King by Sophocles <ul><li>Oedipus is the son of Laius, the king of Thebes, and of Jocasta. </li></ul><ul><li>When born, he receives a prophesy that he will slay his father and marry his mother. </li></ul><ul><li>The father has his boy’s feet pierced, and orders a shepherd to leave him on a hillside to die. </li></ul><ul><li>Polybus, the shepherd, instead rears the child as his own. </li></ul><ul><li>When, as a man, he receives this prophecy, he leaves the shepherd out of fear it might come true. </li></ul><ul><li>He travels to Thebes, the most distant place from the site </li></ul><ul><li>The theme underlying this effort is that it is folly to outwit the Fates . </li></ul>
  • 35. Delphi: Site of the Oracle <ul><li>Founding Myth: A sanctuary for the Titan earth goddess Gaia </li></ul><ul><li>Sun God (Apollo) slays the Python, the dragon who guarded the gate </li></ul><ul><li>Founded the Temple of Apollo, henceforth the oracle of prophesy </li></ul><ul><li>This is where King Laius receives the prophecy that his son will kill him and marry his wife </li></ul>
  • 36. Layout of Delphi, including the Temple of Apollo <ul><li>Upper left: amphitheater </li></ul><ul><li>Center: Temple of Apollo (columned building) </li></ul><ul><li>Other sanctuaries are set aside for Dionysius, other gods and kings </li></ul><ul><li>For complete plan, see p. 139 </li></ul>
  • 37. Oedipus: The Patricide <ul><li>While traveling, Oedipus meets a party of men who are blocking his way </li></ul><ul><li>They argue over the right of way on a narrow road </li></ul><ul><li>The dispute gets out of hand </li></ul><ul><li>Oedipus kills several men in the entourage </li></ul><ul><li>Laius, Oedipus’s father, is one of the men he murders </li></ul>
  • 38. The Sphinx and Her Riddle <ul><li>At the gates of Thebes, he encounters the Sphinx, who has been terrorizing Thebes for years </li></ul><ul><li>The Sphinx has waylaid people, ask a riddle, and murdered them all for their failure to give the right answer </li></ul><ul><li>The riddle: what walks on four in the morning </li></ul><ul><li>On two at noon, and </li></ul><ul><li>On three at night? </li></ul><ul><li>Your turn: got a good answer? </li></ul><ul><li>A man in the phases of infancy, adulthood, and old age </li></ul>
  • 39. Oedipus’s Answer <ul><li>His answer: “man” </li></ul><ul><li>He crawls on all fours in the morning (of life as a toddler) </li></ul><ul><li>Walks on two at noon (maturity) </li></ul><ul><li>Walks on three in the evening (a cane, at old age) </li></ul><ul><li>She screams, falls to the ground with a thud, and rots away with decay and vultures </li></ul>
  • 40. Oedipus Become King and Marries his Mother <ul><li>The grateful Thebans award him with the kinship </li></ul><ul><li>And with the hand of Jocasta to be his wife </li></ul><ul><li>In so doing, he fulfils the prophecy that he will marry his mother. </li></ul><ul><li>The Gods, angered by his incest, send a plague to the city </li></ul><ul><li>After siring and bearing four children, Oedipus is told by the blind prophet Tiresias that he is the cause of the plague. </li></ul><ul><li>In his pride, he refuses to believe the prophet, thinking his rival Creon, Jocasta’s brother, has set him up to this. </li></ul>
  • 41. Curse of Oedipus Rex <ul><li>The chorus fills the audience in on the details of the events </li></ul><ul><li>A messenger conveys the news of the shepherd Polybus’s death and adds that he was only Oedipus’s adopted father. </li></ul><ul><li>Jocasta discovers the truth in the conversation, runs off the stage and hangs herself </li></ul><ul><li>The truth come slowly to Oedipus; he takes the brooch from his dead wife and blinds himself </li></ul>
  • 42. Departure of Oedipus Rex; Fate of Antigone <ul><li>He leaves Thebes with his daughter Antigone </li></ul><ul><li>Another play portrays Antigone herself, his daughter/sister </li></ul><ul><li>After Oedipus’s death, she returns to Thebes </li></ul><ul><li>When Creon, now king, decrees she cannot give her brother Polynices the rites of burial at his death, she does so anyway </li></ul><ul><li>For her defiance, she is sealed in a cave to slowly suffocate. </li></ul><ul><li>She commits suicide rather than suffer this fate </li></ul>
  • 43. Incest: A Universal Taboo <ul><li>Definition: A rule that forbids copulation between two persons of defined relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Primary kin: parent-child, siblings </li></ul><ul><li>Father-daughter </li></ul><ul><li>Mother-son </li></ul><ul><li>Brother sister </li></ul><ul><li>Exception: Egyptian, Inca, Hawaiian </li></ul><ul><li>Allowed only in royal line: “purity” </li></ul>
  • 44. Other Tragic Dramatists <ul><li>Aeschylus: The first playwright in the Western World </li></ul><ul><li>Known for the Orestian trilogy, which detail the horrors that befell the House of Atreus </li></ul><ul><li>This trilogy set the pattern for other tragedies. </li></ul><ul><li>Euripides: Had the reputation of a freethinker and was highly unpopular in his time. </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote 92 plays in his lifetime of which 18 are still known. </li></ul><ul><li>Among the plays: The Trojan Women (the aftermath of the war); Hercules; Orestes (Medusa’s killer); and Medea (murderess of an abusive father). </li></ul>
  • 45. Design of a Greek Theater <ul><li>The stage was very narrow and often crowded </li></ul><ul><li>The chorus often performed in the orchestra </li></ul>
  • 46. Philosophy in Hellenic Greece <ul><li>Pre-Greek Philosophers: The stuff that unified the reality we perceive—what is everything made of </li></ul><ul><li>The Sophists: The first relativists: “How do we know what we know? </li></ul><ul><li>Socrates: First (through Plato) to argue for an unchanging body of truths. </li></ul><ul><li>Plato: Argued for absolute truth (expressed through Socrates, so we don’t know which is which); founded the Academy </li></ul><ul><li>Aristotle: Founded the Lyceum; saw reason as a tool for knowledge; rejected Plato’s theory of forms and notion of a universal psyche </li></ul>
  • 47. The Sophists <ul><li>Protagoras (pictured) </li></ul><ul><li>Meaning of “Man is the Measure of All things” </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge cannot exceed human opinion </li></ul><ul><li>Relativism forms the norm; there is no reality apart from one’s own perceptions </li></ul><ul><li>Gorgias </li></ul><ul><li>Reality in incomprehensible </li></ul><ul><li>Even if one comprehend it, he could not describe the real to others. </li></ul><ul><li>Basic Theme: What might be true and just for one may not be so for another. </li></ul>
  • 48. Socrates: The Dialectical Method <ul><li>To Socrates, inquiry involved a three-step method </li></ul><ul><li>Thesis: A proposition of what is true </li></ul><ul><li>Antithesis : a proposition offering the opposite proposition </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesis: A proposition reconciling the thesis and antithesis. </li></ul><ul><li>Formed the basis of his dialogues and his teaching technique </li></ul>
  • 49. Socrates: The Quest for Virtue I <ul><li>Contrary to the Sophists, Socrates argued that there is only a unitary truth </li></ul><ul><li>This was not dependent on one’s perceptions </li></ul><ul><li>Virtue is the condition of the psyche (soul or mind) </li></ul><ul><li>To do good, one must first know good </li></ul>
  • 50. Socrates: The Quest for Virtue II <ul><li>One argument: That as a citizen of Athens, he had incurred obligations </li></ul><ul><li>One obligation was to submit to the law even if it meant his life (here, he is about to drink the hemlock as a sentence for corrupting the youth </li></ul>
  • 51. Plato: The Quest for the Ideal Form <ul><li>Idealism: the notion that reality lies in the realm of unchanging forms rather than in sensory objects </li></ul><ul><li>Our perceptions are imperfect and limited </li></ul><ul><li>Psyche belongs to the universe of eternal forms; imprisoned in the body, the mind forgets its once-perfect knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Task of philosophy: to draw the mind out of its limited body and so regain perfect awareness. </li></ul><ul><li>Railed against the Sophists for their relativism </li></ul>
  • 52. Plato: Allegory of the Cave <ul><li>The cave is a metaphor for our perceived reality </li></ul><ul><li>Like the shadows of the cave, our reality is not the things they really are, the ideal </li></ul><ul><li>Going out into the sunlight, we would see the ideal that is behind the reality we perceive </li></ul>
  • 53. Plato: The Perfect State <ul><li>In Plato’s Republic, asks “what is the nature of justice?” and </li></ul><ul><li>“ What is the nature of a just society?” </li></ul><ul><li>Roots the answers in a two-level reality </li></ul><ul><li>The one of changing particulars in our senses </li></ul><ul><li>The other is an unchanging set of universal truths </li></ul><ul><li>Formed the idea of a philosopher king, who alone perceived the universal truths and so were the only ones fit to rule a republic </li></ul>
  • 54. Plato and Art <ul><li>To Plato, art is a distortion of the ideal </li></ul><ul><li>Nature is but a shadow of the real (the ideal) </li></ul><ul><li>Art is only an imitation of nature </li></ul><ul><li>God (or gods) creates the essential </li></ul><ul><li>Artisans make useful objects out of the essential </li></ul><ul><li>Artists only makes images of the essential </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, artists rank lowest in the chain of beings, </li></ul><ul><li>They are no better than those who carry images that project shadows in the cave </li></ul>
  • 55. Aristotle: In Pursuit of Reason <ul><li>A student of Plato, rejected both the notion of universal truths and psychic unity </li></ul><ul><li>Argued that mind and matter could not exist independently of each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Developed the empirical method, whereby observation of things and events are the key to understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Methods: objectivity, clarity, and consistency </li></ul><ul><li>He applied these methods to observing plants and animals, city state constitutions, and literary forms. </li></ul>
  • 56. Aristotle: Ethics <ul><li>Basic aim of ethics: to achieve both happiness and the good life ( eudaimonia ) </li></ul><ul><li>Eudaimonia is defined in terms of the object: eye is to see, racehorse is to run fast; knife is to cut. </li></ul><ul><li>Ultimate aim is arête (virtue and excellence) </li></ul>
  • 57. Aristotle: The Golden Mean <ul><li>There is a need for balance between two extremes; between: </li></ul><ul><li>Excess and scarcity, there must be moderation </li></ul><ul><li>Cowardice and recklessness, there must be bravery or courage </li></ul><ul><li>All these involve reason to arrive at a balanced moral conduct </li></ul>
  • 58. Aristotle: Politics and the State <ul><li>Applied reason to analyze the state by comparing the constitution of 150 city states </li></ul><ul><li>Argued that some were more fit to rule than others, so advocated an elitism. </li></ul><ul><li>Government should exist for the sake of the state, not the individual, lest competing interests reduce the state to squabbling faction </li></ul><ul><li>Ideal form: governance by the middle class (Golden Mean hypothesis between tyranny and anarchy) </li></ul><ul><li>Humans can reach their potential only in the context of state society; man is thus a political animal </li></ul>
  • 59. Aristotle on Drama <ul><li>Tragedy: the cause of how an unfortunate ending comes to be </li></ul><ul><li>An initiation of action that brings pity and fear </li></ul><ul><li>An error in judgment made by a superior man </li></ul><ul><li>Should be confined to the unities of time and place—a single place on a single day. </li></ul>
  • 60. Aristotle on the Arts <ul><li>His main comments focused on drama rather tan the visual arts. </li></ul><ul><li>Distained the notion of gods </li></ul><ul><li>Valued myths as encapsulating human wisdom </li></ul><ul><li>The arts should capture the essence of this wisdom rather than the embroidery of </li></ul><ul><li>The Golden Mean also is relevant to the arts </li></ul>
  • 61. Conclusion of this Section. <ul><li>Greeks formed city states but shared a culture </li></ul><ul><li>Warring was common despite the advances in philosophy, arts, architecture, and drama </li></ul><ul><li>The next stage: an empire, first under Philip of Macedonia </li></ul><ul><li>Then under Alexander the Great, his son. </li></ul><ul><li>The next presentation looks more closely at Greek art, sculpture, and architecture </li></ul>

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