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Reviews the Inca Empire and its roots.

Reviews the Inca Empire and its roots.

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  • The Inca empire was unique in several ways, as we shall see.


  • 1. Andean America The Inca and Their Descendants
  • 2. The Inca: An Introduction
    • One of the world’s largest empires
    • Lacked writing
    • An administrative socialistic economy
    • Stone architecture without pulleys, draft animals, or metal tools
    • Longest highway in the ancient world
  • 3. Location of Inca Empire
    • In South America (Inset):
    • The empire extended from the Pacific coast
    • Through the Andes into Amazon forest
    • It extended from Colombia in north
    • To Chile in south.
  • 4. Map of Inca Empire
    • The capital, Cuzco, was in the center of the empire
    • Machu Picchu, the sacred center, was northeast of Cuzco
    • The empire was 2800 miles long
    • Tiahuanaco was the main city of the minority Aymara
    • Other centers: Moche, Chan Chan, Nazca, Huari
  • 5. Inca: Road System
    • The road system kept the empire together
    • Extent: Quito to north to Santiago to the south
    • Runners maintained communication in the empire
    • Tampus (garrisons) spaced one day apart enforced central control
  • 6. Ecological Map of Central Inca Empire
    • The empire covered diverse ecological zones:
    • Light orange: dry coastal area
    • Purple: foothill forests
    • Yellow: Andes highlands
    • Green: Amazonian rainforest
    • Empire exploited resources of each ecological zone
  • 7. Andean Region: Coastal Climate
    • Coastal regions were extremely dry
    • Inversion prevented rainfall on the coastal plains
    • Most of rainfall occurred in Andes
    • 10% rainfall drained in coastal rivers, only source of water on coast
    • The southward current produced an upwelling of coastal Pacific, yielding
    • Rich plankton and other nutrients, which
    • Sustained a rich supply of fish and shellfish
    • First settlements began on the coast
  • 8. Andean Regions: Mountains
    • Andes Mountains comprises:
    • Peaks of mountains and
    • Valleys, including with grassy flatlands ( punas)
    • Andes received most of the rainfall
    • Snowmelt watered both interior habitations and coast
    • Wet, vegetated montaňas were on the eastern side of the Andes
    • Amazonia; tributaries received most of the rainfall
  • 9. Plant and Animal Domestication
    • Plants:
    • Potatoes: a tuber highly adapted to cold climates
    • Quinoa: a grain made into breads
    • Maize introduced about 4,000 BC
    • Animals
    • Llama: Beast of burden, also used for wool and meat
    • Alpaca : Valued mainly for its wool
    • Site : Telemarchay rock shelter shows sequence from hunting to animal domestication
  • 10. Pre-Inca Regional Empires
    • The Andes were dominated by regional empires
    • Chan Chan and Moche were dominant in the northern Andes
    • Sipán and Chan Chan were coastal empires
    • Nazca and the Aymara Tiahuanaco dominated the southern Andes
  • 11. Inca Empire Expansion
    • In the heart of the empire,
    • Cuzco started as village ca AD 1000
    • Probably developed into Inca capital around 1440
    • When troops under the first emperor Pachakuti (map) defeated the rival Chanca state
    • Incas then expanded northward and southward
    • As they defeated each state, the Inca ,
    • Allowed the people to retain their organization and culture
    • Map shows three phases of Inca expansion
  • 12. Road System: Transportation and Communication
    • Andean America: A well-developed highway system
    • Covered the 2600 mile length of empire
    • Access controlled by emperor and imperial administrators
    • Tampus (storehouses, garrisons, and lodging) constructed a day’s travel apart (see map)
    • Beasts of burden (llamas) carried up to 100 pounds of cargo
    • Most carriers were human
    • Communication maintained by runners
  • 13. Administrative Economy: Prototype of Socialism?
    • Emperors had a dual system of inheritance
    • First born became emperor
    • Others royalty inherited property
    • Emperor thus depended on mitá , or labor tax
    • Every adult provided labor after meeting subsistence needs of clan ( allyu )
    • Clans provided labor for public works, state-owned lands, army manpower, and road/bridge construction
    • Rewards: chicha, entertainment, textiles
  • 14. Making a Living
    • The Inca had no large draft animals except for the llama (a camelid)
    • They tilled the soil using the foot plow (upper left)
    • Staple crop was the potato; they also grew maize, quinoa (a grain), and others
    • They raised duck, guinea pigs, and camelids (llama, alpaca, vicu ña for meat)
    • The camelids were also sources of wool (lower left).
  • 15. Inca Warehouses and Accounting
    • All products—potatoes to corn brew to meat—were warehoused
    • Accounts were kept with quipus
    • These were knotted cords that were used for:
    • Population censuses
    • Animals (llamas)
    • Warehouse contents of each category
  • 16. Quipus: A Substitute for Writing
    • There is no evidence of writing so far.
    • They did have a numerical system:
    • Quipu System: knotted twine suspended from main cord
    • The further away the knot is from the cord, the lower the number is
    • It is thought to be a decimal system
    • Some experts think it might be a binary-based system
  • 17. Quipu System
    • Lowest: ones, at string farthest from cord
    • That is 3 on the diagram
    • Next: tens (40 in diagram)
    • Next: hundreds (600)
    • Next: thousands toward main cord (3000)
    • Explain how you get the figure 3643 to the right
  • 18. Quipus: Census by Color Code
    • Color coding system counting :
    • Population, one color
    • Tributes of labor, another color
    • Other forms of tribute
    • Land distribution
    • Military expenses
    • There was a color for each category
  • 19. Sociopolitical Structure of the Inca
    • The Inca had cobbled together smaller empires: Chanca, Nazca, Moche, and others
    • Emperor was said to be descended from the Sun God
    • Sun was the giver of all life
    • Purity of the imperial lineage called for royal incest—a emperor married his sister
    • Mobility was extremely limited if existent at all
  • 20. Administrative Apparatus
    • Inca: An structured administrative state
    • Divided into four quarters (hence the name Tawanitimsuyu—Land of Four Quarters
    • Further subdivided into waranqa of 1000 taxpayers (labor tax)
    • Used a system of colonization called mitmaq to
    • Exploit new resources, and to prevent revolts
    • The empire was made up of diverse ethnic groups
    • Administrative towns, such as Huanaco Pampa (left) also added centralized control
  • 21. Public Architecture
    • Stone architecture was widespread
    • Inca and Predecessors used uneven blocks of stone without mortar (left)
    • They were cut without metal tools and lifted into place without pulleys
    • The blocks together so precisely that a coin could not be inserted between them
    • Surface of Temple of the sun was covered with a gold frieze, or decorative plate.
  • 22. Conquest of the Inca
    • Conquest preceded by spread of European disease (upper left)
    • Pizarro, like Cortes in Mexico, used Indian allies to overthrow the Inca (lower left)
    • Inca were already divided by war between Atahualpa and Huascar, the two sons of the deceased emperor, himself dead from smallpox