Andean America: Land of the Inca

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Deacribes the basic features of the Inca and their predecessors.

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  • The Inca empire was unique in several ways, as we shall see.
  • Andean America: Land of the Inca

    1. 1. Andean AmericaAndean America The Inca and Their DescendantsThe Inca and Their Descendants
    2. 2. The Inca: An IntroductionThe Inca: An Introduction • One of the world’s largest empires • Lacked writing • An administrative socialistic economy • Stone architecture without pulleys, draft animals, or metal tools • Longest highway in the ancient world
    3. 3. Location of Inca EmpireLocation of Inca Empire • In South America (Inset): • The empire extended from the Pacific coast • Through the Andes into Amazon forest • It extended from Colombia in north • To Chile in south.
    4. 4. Map of Inca EmpireMap of Inca Empire • The capital, Cuzco, was in the center of the empire • Machu Picchu, the sacred center, was northeast of Cuzco • The empire was 2800 miles long • Tiahuanaco was the main city of the minority Aymara • Other centers: Moche, Chan Chan, Nazca, Huari
    5. 5. Inca: Road SystemInca: Road System • The road system kept the empire together • Extent: Quito to north to Santiago to the south • Runners maintained communication in the empire • Tampus (garrisons) spaced one day apart enforced central control
    6. 6. Ecological Map of Central IncaEcological Map of Central Inca EmpireEmpire • The empire covered diverse ecological zones: • Light orange: dry coastal area • Purple: foothill forests • Yellow: Andes highlands • Green: Amazonian rainforest • Empire exploited resources of each ecological zone
    7. 7. Andean Region: Coastal ClimateAndean Region: Coastal Climate • Coastal regions were extremely dry • Inversion prevented rainfall on the coastal plains • Most of rainfall occurred in Andes • 10% rainfall drained in coastal rivers, only source of water on coast • The southward current produced an upwelling of coastal Pacific, yielding • Rich plankton and other nutrients, which • Sustained a rich supply of fish and shellfish • First settlements began on the coast
    8. 8. Andean Regions: MountainsAndean Regions: Mountains • Andes Mountains comprises: • Peaks of mountains and • Valleys, including with grassy flatlands (punas) • Andes received most of the rainfall • Snowmelt watered both interior habitations and coast • Wet, vegetated montaňas were on the eastern side of the Andes • Amazonia; tributaries received most of the rainfall
    9. 9. Plant and Animal DomesticationPlant and Animal Domestication • Plants: • Potatoes: a tuber highly adapted to cold climates • Quinoa: a grain made into breads • Maize introduced about 4,000 BC • Animals • Llama: Beast of burden, also used for wool and meat • Alpaca: Valued mainly for its wool • Site: Telemarchay rock shelter shows sequence from hunting to animal domestication
    10. 10. Pre-Inca Regional EmpiresPre-Inca Regional Empires • The Andes were dominated by regional empires • Chan Chan and Moche were dominant in the northern Andes • Sipán and Chan Chan were coastal empires • Nazca and the Aymara Tiahuanaco dominated the southern Andes
    11. 11. Inca Empire ExpansionInca Empire Expansion • In the heart of the empire, • Cuzco started as village ca AD 1000 • Probably developed into Inca capital around 1440 • When troops under the first emperor Pachakuti (map) defeated the rival Chanca state • Incas then expanded northward and southward • As they defeated each state, the Inca , • Allowed the people to retain their organization and culture • Map shows three phases of Inca expansion
    12. 12. Road System: Transportation andRoad System: Transportation and CommunicationCommunication • Andean America: A well-developed highway system • Covered the 2600 mile length of empire • Access controlled by emperor and imperial administrators • Tampus (storehouses, garrisons, and lodging) constructed a day’s travel apart (see map) • Beasts of burden (llamas) carried up to 100 pounds of cargo • Most carriers were human • Communication maintained by runners
    13. 13. Administrative Economy: Prototype ofAdministrative Economy: Prototype of Socialism?Socialism? • Emperors had a dual system of inheritance • First born became emperor • Others royalty inherited property • Emperor thus depended on mitá, or labor tax • Every adult provided labor after meeting subsistence needs of clan (allyu) • Clans provided labor for public works, state- owned lands, army manpower, and road/bridge construction • Rewards: chicha, entertainment, textiles
    14. 14. Making a LivingMaking a Living • The Inca had no large draft animals except for the llama (a camelid) • They tilled the soil using the foot plow (upper left) • Staple crop was the potato; they also grew maize, quinoa (a grain), and others • They raised duck, guinea pigs, and camelids (llama, alpaca, vicuña for meat) • The camelids were also sources of wool (lower left).
    15. 15. Inca Warehouses and AccountingInca Warehouses and Accounting • All products—potatoes to corn brew to meat—were warehoused • Accounts were kept with quipus • These were knotted cords that were used for: • Population censuses • Animals (llamas) • Warehouse contents of each category
    16. 16. Quipus: A Substitute for WritingQuipus: A Substitute for Writing • There is no evidence of writing so far. • They did have a numerical system: • Quipu System: knotted twine suspended from main cord • The further away the knot is from the cord, the lower the number is • It is thought to be a decimal system • Some experts think it might be a binary-based system
    17. 17. Quipu SystemQuipu System • Lowest: ones, at string farthest from cord • That is 3 on the diagram • Next: tens (40 in diagram) • Next: hundreds (600) • Next: thousands toward main cord (3000) • Explain how you get the figure 3643 to the right
    18. 18. Quipus: Census by Color CodeQuipus: Census by Color Code • Color coding system counting: • Population, one color • Tributes of labor, another color • Other forms of tribute • Land distribution • Military expenses • There was a color for each category
    19. 19. Sociopolitical Structure of the IncaSociopolitical Structure of the Inca • The Inca had cobbled together smaller empires: Chanca, Nazca, Moche, and others • Emperor was said to be descended from the Sun God • Sun was the giver of all life • Purity of the imperial lineage called for royal incest—a emperor married his sister • Mobility was extremely limited if existent at all
    20. 20. Administrative ApparatusAdministrative Apparatus • Inca: An structured administrative state • Divided into four quarters (hence the name Tawanitimsuyu—Land of Four Quarters • Further subdivided into waranqa of 1000 taxpayers (labor tax) • Used a system of colonization called mitmaq to • Exploit new resources, and to prevent revolts • The empire was made up of diverse ethnic groups • Administrative towns, such as Huanaco Pampa (left) also added centralized control
    21. 21. Public ArchitecturePublic Architecture • Stone architecture was widespread • Inca and Predecessors used uneven blocks of stone without mortar (left) • They were cut without metal tools and lifted into place without pulleys • The blocks together so precisely that a coin could not be inserted between them • Surface of Temple of the sun was covered with a gold frieze, or decorative plate.
    22. 22. Conquest of the IncaConquest of the Inca • Conquest preceded by spread of European disease (upper left) • Pizarro, like Cortes in Mexico, used Indian allies to overthrow the Inca (lower left) • Inca were already divided by war between Atahualpa and Huascar, the two sons of the deceased emperor, himself dead from smallpox

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