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Administrative States
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Administrative States


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Describes the attributes of states and their administrative functions, then provides an overview of two case studies, the Inca and Japan

Describes the attributes of states and their administrative functions, then provides an overview of two case studies, the Inca and Japan

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  • 1. Administrative States Roads to Bureaucracy
  • 2. Political Organization: A Review
    • Power vs Authority
    • Power: compliance by coercion or force
    • Authority: compliance by persuasion
    • Legitimacy: Beliefs rationalizing rule
    • Examples: Divine Right, Peoples Consent
    • Sanctions : reinforcements of behavior
    • Positive: rewards, recognition
    • Negative: punishment
  • 3. Power versus Authority
    • Extreme examples
    • Power: concentration camps: Auschwitz (above); Guantanamo (below)
    • Authority: !Kung, Inuit, Yanomamo
    • Neither is absolute
    • Dictatorships need to persuade: Nuremberg rallies, Mayday parades
    • Power is evenly distributed in nonstate cultures
  • 4. Legitimacy as Justification for Political Order
    • Justification necessary even in authoritarian states
    • Monarchies: the divine right to rule
    • Soviet Union: Socialist transition to communist economy
    • Nazi Germany: Racial purification; delivery of full-employment (Nuremberg rallies, above)
    • Democratic forms: consent by the governed (below, State of the Union)
  • 5. Defining States
    • States occur in the context of stratified societies
    • They involve extremes in wealth and poverty
    • These differences are institutionalized by several features
    • Access to strategic resources that sustain life
    • Access to power, or the ability to coerce
    • Control over the laws that are retributive
    • We look at each of these in turn
  • 6. Stratified Societies
    • Access to strategic resources is unequal
    • Examples
    • Water in irrigation societies
    • Land in patrimonial (feudal) societies
    • Claims to capital assets (stocks, bonds) in capitalist society
    • Capital: goods/services used for production
    • Money, stocks, bonds are also capital
  • 7. Stratified Societies: India’s Castes as extreme case
    • Castes : Closed Descent groups that
    • Lack mobility: once a peasant, always one
    • Are Endogamous: intermarriage forbidden
    • Maintain differential access to resources
  • 8. Main (Varna) Castes in India
    • Brahmins: priests
    • Kshatryas: warriors
    • Vaishyas (merchants, craftpersons)
    • Sudras (peasant, menial workers)
    • Untouchables (Hariian, Dalit) “Impure castes”
  • 9. Stratified Societies: India’s other castes
    • Impure castes: “Untouchables” (harijan)
    • Those who perform “impure” tasks such as leatherworking
    • Some come out only at night--”unseeables”
    • If harijan’s shadow falls on Brahmin. . .
    • Jatis: occupational subcastes
    • Likewise endogamous and closed
    • Often, members of different castes and subcastes may not speak with each other
  • 10. States: Force as Prime Mover
    • Defining Characteristics
    • A centralized political system
    • With power to coerce
    • The operating factor:
    • Monopoly over the use of
    • Legitimate physical force
    • Supports the apparatus of the state
    • Bureaucracy --Army and police
    • Law and legal codes
  • 11. States: Derivative Features
    • Administrative structure
    • Public services --Tax collection
    • Resource allocation --Foreign affairs
    • Delegation of force
    • Police, all levels --Armed force
    • Law
    • Civil (dispute resolution)
    • Regulatory (trade, economy)
    • Criminal (crime and punishment)
  • 12. Law: Cross-Cultural Comparison
    • Codified law: Formally defines wrong and specifies remedies
    • Customary law: Informal sanctions or dispute resolution
    • Restitution or Restorative law: emphasizes dispute resolution, damage restitution
    • Retributive law: emphasizes punishment for crimes committed
  • 13. Case Studies: Retribution
    • Criminal Law
    • Murder, Robbery, Others
    • Civil Law
    • Consumer Law and Small Courts
    • Final Say: Judge or Arbitrator
    • Limitation: Sheer Numbers of Cases
  • 14. How Are States Formed?
    • Circumscription Theory: Robert Carneiro
    • States are likely to form under the following condition:
    • High population density
    • Barriers to migration: Desert (as in Egypt), dense forest (as among the Inca), seas or oceans (as in Japan)
    • The barriers leave little opportunity to escape or do so at extreme effort
  • 15. Conditions Against Reverse Dominance Hierarchies
    • Christopher Boehm offers a more complex hypothesis
    • Face-to-face relations keep power-hungry individuals in line
    • These break down when the following occur:
    • Food surplus
    • Population increase
    • One can manipulate alliances with impunity
  • 16. Ending Reverse Dominance Hierarchy: Food Surplus
    • Bases of Food Surplus
    • Complex Foraging: Northwest Coast Indians
    • Advanced Pastoralists: Mongol Nomads
    • Neolithic Revolution
    • Intensive Cultivation
    • Nonfarm Specialization in
    • Crafts and Manufactures
    • Administration and Enforcement
    • Rise of an Elite
  • 17. Ending Reverse Dominance Hierarchy: Population Density
    • Populations increase
    • Beyond scope of kin-based control (Ur, Sumeria, left)
    • New control mechanism come into place
    • Extra-Familial groups take control
    • Anti-hierarchical mechanisms lose effectiveness
    • Circumscription (Carneiro’s model) ensures control.
  • 18. Emergence of Stratification
    • Manipulative Individuals/ Families
    • Form alliances (chimpanzee-like)
    • Play one faction against another
    • Form dynasties (bonobo-like)
    • Control over Life-Sustaining Resources
    • Water systems in semi-arid regions
    • Agricultural lands
    • Mechanisms of Taxation
    • Labor
    • Tribute
  • 19. The Functions of Administration
    • High populations require coordination
    • This function can best be exercised by individuals who are unhampered by democratic constraints
    • Democracy allows maximum participation
    • It also hinders decisions and action where such is required immediately
    • Administration is the best device
  • 20. Administration: Structure and Function
    • Policies are determined by the top echelon and the elite
    • Lower officers are given or delegated a certain range of tasks
    • They may not perform functions not delegated to them
    • This enables an elite to address a large range of tasks
    • But to enable the functions in predictable ways.
  • 21. Examples of Administrative States: Socialist Societies
    • Ancient examples: the Inca of the Andes
    • Modern examples: Socialist or communist societies: The Soviet Union, China, Vietnam, Cuba
    • Modern examples: the corporatist state such as Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, or Imperial Japan
    • The first two are command economies;
    • The third involves functional equivalents of command economies.
  • 22. Property: Command Economies
    • State in command economies
    • Communist countries owned most productive assets
    • Upper Left: Chinese commune
    • Only remaining countries: Cuba, N. Korea
    • Inca: a administrative economy
    • Land mostly belonged to empire
    • Labor tax was motor of the Inca economy (lower left)
  • 23. Case Studies: The Inca and Japan
    • The Inca (Inka) of the Andes centered in Cuzco
    • The economy was entirely administered from the top down
    • Japan
    • Starting as a feudal society, a centralized government developed over time
    • Today, it is a democracy dominated by a corporate elite.