Emergency First Aid for Children 12. Bone, Joint and Muscle Injuries
Bone, Joint and Muscle InjuriesThe First Aider should:• Steady and support the injured part - Soft tissue injuries will benefit from padding and bandaging - Fractures and dislocations may need splinting• If broken bone lies within a large bulk of tissue – treat casualty for shock• Obtain medical attention
Dealing with Broken Bones Closed fractures -Aims • To prevent movement at the site of injury • To arrange removal to hospital Treatment • Ask casualty to keep injured area still, steady and support injured part until it is immobilised • For firmer support, secure injued part to a sound part of the bodyPages 38
Dealing with Broken Bones Closed fractures cont’d Upper limb fractures • Always support the arm against the trunk with a sling Lower limb fractures • If removal to hospital will be delayed, bandage the sound leg to the injured onePages 38
Types of Fracture GREENSTICK COMPOUND SIMPLE CRACKPages 38
Broken Leg Aims: • To prevent movement at the site of injury • To arrange removal to hospital Treatment: • Lay casualty down, support leg at ankle and knee joints. • Steady the injured leg with packing. Pad outside the injured limb and between the legs with one or more rolled up blankets. • Keep the casualty warm. • Call an ambulancePages 38
Broken PelvisRecognising:• Inability to walk or stand• Pain and tenderness in the hip and groin region• Bleeding from the urinary orifice
Broken PelvisTreatment:• Lay casualty down keeping their head low.• Place padding between their legs with figure-of-eight bandage and broad-fold bandages.• Placing cushions under the knees may alleviate pain. Injuries to the pelvis are usually caused by crushing or direct impact. There may be internal bleeding.
BROKEN ARM Treatment: • Sit the casualty down, if possible get them to support the injured arm in their hand. • Place a pad between his arm and chest to immobilise and cushion the injured limb. • Put the arm in an Arm Sling secured with a reef knot. • For additional support, place a broad fold bandage over the sling and around the casualty’s arm and chest.Pages 38
BROKEN ELBOW Elbow injuries need special care and early treatment in hospital. Recognising a broken elbow: • Pain increased by attempted movement • Stiffness • Swelling or bruising DO NOT attempt to straighten or bend the elbowPages 38
Sprained Ankle • Suspect an ankle sprain if the casualty can’t take their full weight on their foot after a fall or wrench Treatment: • Sit casualty down, raise their foot and gently remove the sock and shoe before swelling occurs. • Apply a cold compress or icepack • Wrap the ankle with a thick layer of cotton wool. Bandage the cotton wool in place. Keep the ankle raised.Pages 48-49
Ear WoundWatery fluid from ear may be result of:• Fracture to skull• Perforated ear drum – could be caused by foreign body, a blow to the side of the head, explosion
Ear WoundAims• To allow blood to drain away• To minimise the risk of infectionTreatment• Put sterile dressing or clean pad over the ear• Casualty should tilt their head to allow blood to drain• Casualty should go to hospital in the treatment position.
Soft Tissue Injuries Aims • To reduce swelling • Obtain medical attention if necessary R Rest the injured part I Apply ice or cold compress C Compress the injury E Elevate the injured partPage 39
Emergency First Aid for Children End of Section