Changing	
  Minds,	
  Removing	
  Barriers	
  
UX	
  Prac77oner	
  As	
  Strategist	
  &	
  Change	
  Agent	
  
Paul	
  Sh...
let’s cut to the chase!
	
  Usability	
  testing	
  ≠	
  a	
  good	
  user	
  experience!	
  
	
  
	
  Strategic	
  user	
...
why isn’t testing enough?!
	
  Usability	
  testing	
  is	
  
almost	
  always	
  
tactical	
  and	
  short-­‐
term	
  foc...
so?!
	
  	
  
	
  
But	
  the	
  method	
  is	
  not	
  well	
  suited	
  for:	
  
§  Crafting	
  a	
  unified	
  user	
  ...
Delight	
  
Loyalty	
  
Stickiness	
  
	
  
How	
  do	
  you	
  attain	
  these?	
  
	
  
	
  5	
  
By	
  designing	
  the	
  user	
  
experience:	
  
	
  
For	
  now.	
  
For	
  next	
  year.	
  
And	
  the	
  years	
  af...
And	
  designing	
  the	
  entire	
  
experience…	
  	
  
	
  
Not	
  just	
  your	
  product’s	
  user	
  interface.	
  	...
8	
  
STRATEGY VS. TACTICS!
yadda yadda definition…!
	
  “[Strategy	
  is]	
  A	
  long	
  term	
  plan	
  of	
  action	
  
designed	
  to	
  achieve	...
here’s a good example: !
10	
  
here’s a good example:!
11	
  
	
  Strategic	
  plan:	
  
Go	
  from	
  airport	
  
to	
  hotel	
  
	
  Tactics:	
  	
  
	...
“Find	
  and	
  fix”	
  usability	
  is	
  like	
  
making	
  a	
  turn.	
  	
  
	
  
It’s	
  a	
  good	
  thing	
  to	
  d...
13	
  
A STORY ABOUT ALIGNMENT!
it’s about the organization!
	
  At	
  many	
  companies,	
  various	
  groups	
  and	
  
departments	
  are	
  not	
  ali...
unintended consequences!
	
  Example:	
  Imagine	
  an	
  [ahem]	
  “fictional”	
  
company	
  where	
  a	
  marketing	
  d...
unintended consequences!
	
  …and	
  how	
  many	
  customers	
  do	
  you	
  think	
  were	
  
lost	
  because	
  of	
  t...
my point is…!
	
  Usability	
  testing	
  and	
  user-­‐centered	
  design	
  
can	
  only	
  do	
  so	
  much.	
  
	
  
	...
i’m not the only one!
	
  I’m	
  not	
  the	
  only	
  person	
  saying	
  this:	
  	
  
	
  
	
  Steve	
  Baty	
  –	
  “B...
19	
  
USABILITY AND !
USER EXPERIENCE!
some definitions…!
	
  What	
  is	
  usability?	
  	
  
	
  A	
  person	
  can	
  accomplish	
  what	
  they’re	
  trying	...
user experience honeycomb!
21	
  
From	
  Peter	
  Morville:	
  http://semanticstudios.com/publications/semantics/000029.p...
Usability	
  is	
  a	
  part	
  of	
  it…	
  
	
  
But	
  only	
  a	
  part.	
  	
  
22	
  
how do you quantify ux?!
	
  Measure	
  it	
  
	
  There	
  are	
  many	
  ways	
  to	
  do	
  this…but	
  we	
  don’t	
  ...
what can you do NOW?!
	
  The	
  first	
  step	
  is	
  to	
  
become	
  aware	
  of	
  
the	
  problems!	
  
	
  	
  
	
  ...
walk the customer corridor!
	
  From	
  sign-­‐up	
  to	
  initial	
  
use…free	
  to	
  pay	
  
conversion…calling	
  
an...
the “customer corridor”!
	
  If	
  you	
  don’t	
  know	
  about	
  this	
  concept,	
  talk	
  to	
  
your	
  product	
  ...
and while you’re at it…!
27	
  
	
  Check	
  your	
  customer	
  service	
  line	
  UX!	
  Most	
  
are	
  horrible!	
  (B...
vui is a specialization!
	
  Just	
  because	
  you	
  do	
  GUI	
  doesn’t	
  mean	
  you	
  
can	
  do	
  VUI.	
  
	
  
...
full disclosure…!
	
  She’s	
  my	
  wife.	
  
	
  
	
  She’s	
  also	
  the	
  best	
  
VUI	
  usability	
  expert	
  
ar...
How	
  do	
  you	
  “do”	
  strategic	
  user	
  
experience?	
  	
  
	
  
It	
  sometimes	
  means	
  big	
  changes.	
  ...
it takes big changes!
	
  Remember,	
  in	
  many	
  organizations,	
  
departments	
  and	
  teams	
  are	
  incented	
  ...
some do it instinctively!
	
  Offline:	
  	
  
	
  Nordstrom’s.	
  Virgin	
  Air.	
  
	
  
	
  Online:	
  
	
  Zappos.	
  Am...
The	
  sad	
  truth:	
  most	
  
organizations	
  don’t	
  align	
  on	
  the	
  
user	
  experience.	
  
33	
  
whose fault is it?!
	
  Everybody’s.	
  And	
  nobody’s.	
  	
  
	
  
	
  That’s	
  the	
  problem.	
  	
  
34	
  
How	
  do	
  you	
  take	
  a	
  strategic	
  
approach	
  to	
  creating	
  a	
  great	
  	
  
user	
  experience?	
  	
 ...
a strategic approach to ux!
	
  1.	
  Alignment	
  
	
  Find	
  the	
  disincentives	
  to	
  delivering	
  a	
  good	
  
...
strategic user experience!
	
  2.	
  Values	
  
	
  Be	
  open	
  to	
  learning	
  about	
  and	
  improving	
  the	
  
u...
strategic user experience!
	
  3.	
  Assess	
  the	
  user	
  experience	
  holistically	
  
	
  Traverse	
  the	
  custom...
strategic user experience!
	
  4.	
  Leverage	
  user	
  experience	
  design	
  
	
  Don’t	
  just	
  fix	
  the	
  little...
Yeah,	
  but…	
  how	
  do	
  I	
  get	
  my	
  
organization	
  to	
  do	
  this?	
  	
  
	
  
“Initiative”	
  
40	
  
Give	
  yourself	
  a	
  new	
  job:	
  	
  
“Change	
  agent”	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
Easy	
  to	
  say…	
...
What is a change agent?!
A	
  person	
  who	
  leads	
  a	
  business	
  initiative	
  by:	
  
§  Defining	
  and	
  resea...
“Change	
  agents	
  must	
  have	
  the	
  
conviction	
  to	
  state	
  the	
  facts	
  
based	
  on	
  data,	
  even	
 ...
Successful	
  strategic	
  user	
  
experience	
  is	
  not	
  just	
  about	
  
delivering	
  a	
  design	
  or	
  testin...
It’s	
  about	
  aligning	
  the	
  
organization	
  to	
  measure	
  and	
  
improve	
  the	
  user	
  experience…	
  
	
...
If	
  you’re	
  doing	
  your	
  job	
  right,	
  
you’re	
  changing	
  your	
  
organization.	
  
	
  
“Initiative”	
  
...
Here’s	
  something	
  I	
  created	
  to	
  
help	
  me	
  build	
  a	
  strong	
  UX	
  
presence	
  at	
  my	
  former	...
48	
  
THE STORY OF !
THE UX KIT!
done!!
	
  I	
  could	
  do	
  the	
  kit	
  spiel	
  
in	
  less	
  than	
  5	
  minutes.	
  	
  
	
  
	
  It’s	
  actual...
here’s the story’s main point!
	
  User	
  experience	
  practice	
  
needs	
  to	
  be	
  embedded	
  
more	
  securely	
...
a proposition: !
	
  Despite	
  what	
  we	
  may	
  wish	
  or	
  think,	
  UX	
  is	
  
still	
  poorly	
  integrated	
 ...
gaps!
	
  Like	
  Jared	
  Spool	
  said	
  
in	
  his	
  UPA	
  2009	
  
keynote,	
  there	
  are	
  
gaps	
  in	
  our	
...
why?!
	
  Why	
  isn’t	
  there	
  good	
  stuff	
  out	
  there	
  on	
  how	
  
to	
  integrate	
  UX	
  teams	
  into	
 ...
why?!
	
  But	
  isn’t	
  setting	
  up	
  a	
  team	
  a	
  precondition	
  to	
  
actually	
  DOING	
  effective	
  user	...
my hypotheses!
1.  It’s	
  a	
  trivial	
  problem…	
  I’m	
  stupid	
  and	
  
everyone	
  gets	
  this	
  stuff	
  but	
 ...
my hypotheses!
2.  It’s	
  a	
  particularly	
  thorny	
  problem	
  or	
  a	
  
problem	
  that	
  our	
  field	
  is	
  n...
my hypotheses!
3.  It’s	
  just	
  not	
  as	
  interesting	
  or	
  sexy	
  as	
  
other	
  problems	
  in	
  our	
  field...
1.  It’s	
  a	
  trivial	
  problem…	
  I’m	
  stupid	
  and	
  everyone	
  
gets	
  this	
  stuff	
  but	
  me.	
  	
  
2....
yup, that’s me…!
	
  …always	
  working	
  on	
  the	
  unsexy	
  problems.	
  
	
  
59	
  
60	
  
THE PROBLEM!
ux ino, or “cargo cult ux”!
	
  I’ve	
  worked	
  in	
  several	
  organizations	
  that	
  
claimed	
  to	
  do	
  UX.	
 ...
ux ino, or “cargo cult ux”!
	
  Some	
  orgs	
  *thought*	
  they	
  were	
  doing	
  
UX.	
  
	
  
	
  But	
  what	
  the...
cargo cult user experience!
	
  “A	
  cargo	
  cult	
  is	
  a	
  type	
  of	
  religious	
  
practice	
  that	
  may	
  a...
cargo cult ux!
	
  “Cargo	
  cults	
  conduct	
  rituals	
  imitating	
  
the	
  behavior	
  they	
  have	
  observed	
  a...
pics or it didn’t happen!
	
  	
  
65	
  
pics or it didn’t happen!
	
  	
  
66	
  
can i hammer this point
even more?!
“The	
  term	
  ‘cargo	
  cult’	
  is	
  
invoked	
  as	
  an	
  English	
  
language	...
(not so) clever
impersonation!
	
  Some	
  orgs	
  do	
  
something	
  
resembling	
  UX…	
  
but	
  it’s	
  not	
  really...
I	
  think	
  some	
  of	
  you	
  have	
  seen	
  
this	
  too.	
  
	
  
Yes?	
  	
  
69	
  
now you know my problem !
	
  At	
  a	
  former	
  company	
  I	
  was	
  asked	
  to	
  help	
  
put	
  together	
  UX	
 ...
my solution!
	
  I	
  did	
  what	
  PhD’s	
  
do	
  best:	
  I	
  wrote	
  
a	
  paper.	
  
	
  
	
  And	
  then	
  I	
  ...
who was it for?!
	
  Senior	
  managers	
  
and	
  directors	
  who	
  
needed	
  advice	
  and	
  
consultation	
  on	
  ...
what did I cover?!
73	
  
damn! that’s a lot.!
	
  I	
  know!	
  
74	
  
what i said about process!
75	
  
roles and responsibilities !
Product
Management
Business &
Requirements
Analysts
User
Experience
Design
Development Qualit...
ux team services!Service Phase Description Provides:
Contextual inquiry Ideation
Investigation of users’ goals, objectives...
78	
  
ux team services (again)!
resources in the kit!
	
  I	
  provided	
  crazy	
  amounts	
  of	
  
templates,	
  data	
  sheets,	
  
recruiting	
  form...
what did i tell the leaders?!
80	
  
what did i tell them?!
	
  Hire	
  at	
  least	
  3	
  direct	
  contributors	
  –	
  user	
  
researcher/usability	
  ana...
what did i tell them?!
	
  Budget	
  for	
  between	
  $20,000	
  and	
  $60,000	
  
USD	
  in	
  research	
  expenses,	
 ...
what did i tell them?!
	
  You	
  can	
  spend	
  as	
  little	
  as	
  $5,000	
  or	
  upwards	
  
of	
  $75,000	
  USD	
...
and the big one…!
	
  Be	
  aware	
  that	
  you	
  will	
  HAVE	
  to	
  change	
  your	
  
ideation,	
  design	
  and	
 ...
the results!
85	
  
so how did the kit go over?!
	
  Meh.	
  
	
  
	
  At	
  first,	
  anyway.	
  
86	
  
but after a while…!
87	
  
but after a while…!
	
  It	
  took	
  more	
  than	
  a	
  year.	
  But	
  eventually	
  the	
  
product	
  groups	
  star...
things i wish i had covered!
§  Agile	
  and	
  other	
  
methods	
  
§  How	
  to	
  deal	
  with	
  
force	
  reductio...
caveats!
	
  My	
  UX	
  kit	
  has	
  gaps.	
  It	
  
doesn’t	
  cover	
  smaller	
  orgs	
  
or	
  startups.	
  	
  
	
 ...
was it worth it?!
	
  Absolutely.	
  	
  
	
  
	
  	
  
91	
  
snappy conclusion!
	
  Be	
  bold,	
  but	
  patient.	
  
	
  	
  
	
  Organizations	
  resist	
  
change.	
  	
  
	
  	
 ...
parting thoughts!
You	
  might	
  not	
  get	
  to	
  focus	
  on	
  strategic	
  issues	
  
yet.	
  But	
  start	
  think...
resources!
The	
  UX	
  Kit:	
  	
  	
  
http://shermanux.com/_files/UX_Kit_v2.pdf	
  	
  
	
  
This	
  deck	
  (updated	
 ...
some other takeaways!
	
  Connecting	
  Cultures,	
  Changing	
  Organizations:	
  The	
  User	
  
Experience	
  Practitio...
contact!
	
  Paul	
  Sherman	
  
	
  http://www.shermanux.com	
  
	
  paul@shermanux.com	
  
	
  Twitter:	
  @pjsherman	
 ...
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Changing Minds, Removing Barriers: UX Practitioner as Strategist and Change Agent

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Latest update September 2013. Presented at UX Akron Meetup, September 2013.
First presented at the Big (D)esign 2010 conference, May 2010.

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Changing Minds, Removing Barriers: UX Practitioner as Strategist and Change Agent

  1. 1. Changing  Minds,  Removing  Barriers   UX  Prac77oner  As  Strategist  &  Change  Agent   Paul  Sherman   ShermanUX    
  2. 2. let’s cut to the chase!  Usability  testing  ≠  a  good  user  experience!      Strategic  user  experience  planning  can  yield   a  unified  and  consistent  user  experience.       And  strategic  design  leads  to  great  user   experiences.     2  
  3. 3. why isn’t testing enough?!  Usability  testing  is   almost  always   tactical  and  short-­‐ term  focused.      Even  when  done   across  releases…the   results  are  almost   always  used   tactically.   3  
  4. 4. so?!       But  the  method  is  not  well  suited  for:   §  Crafting  a  unified  user  experience   §  Planning  for  tomorrow’s  user  experience   §  Creating  delight,  loyalty,  stickiness   4   Usability  testing  can  find  problems  with  your   site  or  product.    
  5. 5. Delight   Loyalty   Stickiness     How  do  you  attain  these?      5  
  6. 6. By  designing  the  user   experience:     For  now.   For  next  year.   And  the  years  after  that.   6  
  7. 7. And  designing  the  entire   experience…       Not  just  your  product’s  user  interface.     Or  the  email  campaign’s  HTML  formatting.     Or  the  user  assistance  content.       7  
  8. 8. 8   STRATEGY VS. TACTICS!
  9. 9. yadda yadda definition…!  “[Strategy  is]  A  long  term  plan  of  action   designed  to  achieve  a  particular  goal.”    “Strategy  is  differentiated  from  tactics  or   immediate  actions  by  its  orientation  on   affecting  future,  not  immediate   conditions.”   9   <Lazy>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strategy</>  
  10. 10. here’s a good example: ! 10  
  11. 11. here’s a good example:! 11    Strategic  plan:   Go  from  airport   to  hotel    Tactics:      Make  some   turns  
  12. 12. “Find  and  fix”  usability  is  like   making  a  turn.       It’s  a  good  thing  to  do…     If  you  know  where  you’re  going.     Do  you?   12  
  13. 13. 13   A STORY ABOUT ALIGNMENT!
  14. 14. it’s about the organization!  At  many  companies,  various  groups  and   departments  are  not  aligned  around   creating  the  best  user  experience  possible.        In  fact,  some  groups  are  incented  to   create  a  bad  user  experience.        How  can  that  be?  Easy…unintended   consequences  of  incentive  structures.     14  
  15. 15. unintended consequences!  Example:  Imagine  an  [ahem]  “fictional”   company  where  a  marketing  department  is   responsible  for  shipping  and  fulfillment.        Imagine  they  charged  $15.95  USD  to  ship  a   box  of  software.  And  this  made  the  marketing   department  600K  yearly.        How  many  people  do  you  think  abandoned   their  shopping  carts  when  they  saw  that   price?   15  
  16. 16. unintended consequences!  …and  how  many  customers  do  you  think  were   lost  because  of  this  one  short-­‐sighted  decision?   16  
  17. 17. my point is…!  Usability  testing  and  user-­‐centered  design   can  only  do  so  much.      To  create  great  user  experiences,  you  have  to   take  a  holistic  -­‐  and  strategic  –  approach.   17  
  18. 18. i’m not the only one!  I’m  not  the  only  person  saying  this:        Steve  Baty  –  “Being  An  Experience-­‐Led  Organization”    http://bit.ly/40xrLP      Jared  Spool  –  UPA  2009  keynote          …and  many  others.     18  
  19. 19. 19   USABILITY AND ! USER EXPERIENCE!
  20. 20. some definitions…!  What  is  usability?      A  person  can  accomplish  what  they’re  trying   to  do  with  your  product  or  service.    What  is  user  experience?    A  person’s  positive  and  negative  attitudes   that  results  from  interacting  with  a  product  or     service.     20  
  21. 21. user experience honeycomb! 21   From  Peter  Morville:  http://semanticstudios.com/publications/semantics/000029.php  
  22. 22. Usability  is  a  part  of  it…     But  only  a  part.     22  
  23. 23. how do you quantify ux?!  Measure  it    There  are  many  ways  to  do  this…but  we  don’t   do  a  good  enough  job  today.    My  advice…    Use  multiple  methods,  multiple  measures,   and  look  at  multiple  customer  touchpoints...   not  just  the  product  experience.     23  
  24. 24. what can you do NOW?!  The  first  step  is  to   become  aware  of   the  problems!        How?        Walk  through  the   entire  customer   experience.     24  
  25. 25. walk the customer corridor!  From  sign-­‐up  to  initial   use…free  to  pay   conversion…calling   and  emailing  help,   tech  support,  and   billing…even  closing   the  account.   25  
  26. 26. the “customer corridor”!  If  you  don’t  know  about  this  concept,  talk  to   your  product  managers.  They  do.   26   A  typical  product  manager  drawing…  
  27. 27. and while you’re at it…! 27    Check  your  customer  service  line  UX!  Most   are  horrible!  (Because  the  IT  group  typically   designs  the  prompts  and  menus.)  
  28. 28. vui is a specialization!  Just  because  you  do  GUI  doesn’t  mean  you   can  do  VUI.      VUI  expert  Susan  Hura:    “Is  Your  Goal  To  Get  Rid  Of  Money?”    http://bit.ly/2yehF    “Are  You  Working  Hard  To  Suck  Less?”    http://bit.ly/18vVP1         28  
  29. 29. full disclosure…!  She’s  my  wife.      She’s  also  the  best   VUI  usability  expert   around.   29  
  30. 30. How  do  you  “do”  strategic  user   experience?       It  sometimes  means  big  changes.       It  often  drives  process  and  organizational   structure  changes.   30  
  31. 31. it takes big changes!  Remember,  in  many  organizations,   departments  and  teams  are  incented  to   create  bad  user  experiences.      Changing  organization  structures  and   incentives  to  refocus  on  the  customer  is  hard   work.       31  
  32. 32. some do it instinctively!  Offline:      Nordstrom’s.  Virgin  Air.      Online:    Zappos.  Amazon.  Land’s  End.      And  more.   32  
  33. 33. The  sad  truth:  most   organizations  don’t  align  on  the   user  experience.   33  
  34. 34. whose fault is it?!  Everybody’s.  And  nobody’s.        That’s  the  problem.     34  
  35. 35. How  do  you  take  a  strategic   approach  to  creating  a  great     user  experience?        Four  very  hard  easy  steps…     35  
  36. 36. a strategic approach to ux!  1.  Alignment    Find  the  disincentives  to  delivering  a  good   user  experience,  then  surface  them  to  your   leadership.  Eliminate  them.      Advocate  for  tweaking  the  business  model  if   you  need  to.          Don’t  take  “bad  profits.”  Bad  profits  are   unsustainable  profits.   36  
  37. 37. strategic user experience!  2.  Values    Be  open  to  learning  about  and  improving  the   user  experience.        Those  aphorisms  about  the  customer  always     being  right?  They’re  all  true.        Remember  the  guy  who  complained  about   the  food  on  Virgin  Air?  He’s  now  a  taster.   Stunt?  Yes.  But  effective  and  revealing!   37  
  38. 38. strategic user experience!  3.  Assess  the  user  experience  holistically    Traverse  the  customer  corridor.  Assess  the   total  experience  –  not  just  the  UI.      Find  the  sticky  points,  the  little  trapdoors.    Remember,  one  bad  touchpoint  affects  the   whole  brand.     38  
  39. 39. strategic user experience!  4.  Leverage  user  experience  design    Don’t  just  fix  the  little  user  experience   trapdoors  and  holes.          Assess  and  redesign  the  customer   touchpoints…  all  of  them.  Even  the  IVR.      And…document  what  you  do  and  how.  (More   on  this  in  a  few  minutes.)   39  
  40. 40. Yeah,  but…  how  do  I  get  my   organization  to  do  this?       “Initiative”   40  
  41. 41. Give  yourself  a  new  job:     “Change  agent”                 Easy  to  say…  harder  to  put  into  practice.     “Initiative”   41   UX
  42. 42. What is a change agent?! A  person  who  leads  a  business  initiative  by:   §  Defining  and  researching  the  problem   §  Planning  the  intervention   §  Building  business  support  for  the  intervention   §  Enlisting  others  to  help  drive  change   Six  Sigma  -­‐  http://Isixsigma.com   UXmatters  -­‐  The  User  Experience  Practitioner  As  Change  Agent   42  
  43. 43. “Change  agents  must  have  the   conviction  to  state  the  facts   based  on  data,  even  if  the   consequences  are  associated   with  unpleasantness.”     43   http://www.isixsigma.com/dictionary/change-­‐agent/  
  44. 44. Successful  strategic  user   experience  is  not  just  about   delivering  a  design  or  testing   the  user  interface.     44  
  45. 45. It’s  about  aligning  the   organization  to  measure  and   improve  the  user  experience…     Using  the  tools  and  techniques  of  user  research,   interaction  design,  and  usability  assessment.     45  
  46. 46. If  you’re  doing  your  job  right,   you’re  changing  your   organization.     “Initiative”   46  
  47. 47. Here’s  something  I  created  to   help  me  build  a  strong  UX   presence  at  my  former   organization.     47  
  48. 48. 48   THE STORY OF ! THE UX KIT!
  49. 49. done!!  I  could  do  the  kit  spiel   in  less  than  5  minutes.        It’s  actually  quite   boring  taken  alone.           49    What’s  interesting  is  why  I  needed  one,  why  you   probably  need  one…  and  what  we  should  be   doing  about  this.  
  50. 50. here’s the story’s main point!  User  experience  practice   needs  to  be  embedded   more  securely  into   product  development   lifecycle  activities.     50  
  51. 51. a proposition: !  Despite  what  we  may  wish  or  think,  UX  is   still  poorly  integrated  into  product  ideation,   design,  and  development  activities.               51  
  52. 52. gaps!  Like  Jared  Spool  said   in  his  UPA  2009   keynote,  there  are   gaps  in  our  field.        I  believe  that  one  of   them  is  the  lack  of   organizational   structure  and  process   guidelines.         52  
  53. 53. why?!  Why  isn’t  there  good  stuff  out  there  on  how   to  integrate  UX  teams  into  organizations?        There  are  some  lists.  A  few  books.        But  there  doesn’t  seem  to  be  many  lively,   ongoing  discussions  about  UX  and   organizational  structures,  cultures,  etc.            53  
  54. 54. why?!  But  isn’t  setting  up  a  team  a  precondition  to   actually  DOING  effective  user  experience  work?         54  
  55. 55. my hypotheses! 1.  It’s  a  trivial  problem…  I’m  stupid  and   everyone  gets  this  stuff  but  me.          Note:  this  is  a  definite  possibility.         55  
  56. 56. my hypotheses! 2.  It’s  a  particularly  thorny  problem  or  a   problem  that  our  field  is  not  equipped  to   work  on.        But  we  have  so  many  research   psychologists  in  our  ranks!         56  
  57. 57. my hypotheses! 3.  It’s  just  not  as  interesting  or  sexy  as   other  problems  in  our  field.             57  
  58. 58. 1.  It’s  a  trivial  problem…  I’m  stupid  and  everyone   gets  this  stuff  but  me.     2.  It’s  a  particularly  thorny  problem  or  a  problem   that  our  field  is  not  equipped  to  work  on.     3.  It’s  just  not  as  interesting  or  sexy  as  other   problems  in  our  field.     I  choose  #3   58  
  59. 59. yup, that’s me…!  …always  working  on  the  unsexy  problems.     59  
  60. 60. 60   THE PROBLEM!
  61. 61. ux ino, or “cargo cult ux”!  I’ve  worked  in  several  organizations  that   claimed  to  do  UX.        Some  of  them  actually  did…   61  
  62. 62. ux ino, or “cargo cult ux”!  Some  orgs  *thought*  they  were  doing   UX.      But  what  they  were  really  doing  could  be   called  “UX  in  name  only.”     62  
  63. 63. cargo cult user experience!  “A  cargo  cult  is  a  type  of  religious   practice  that  may  appear  in  tribal   societies  in  the  wake  of  interaction  with   technologically  advanced,  non-­‐native   cultures.”      “The  cults  are  focused  on  obtaining   the  material  wealth  of  the  advanced   culture  through  magical  thinking,   religious  rituals  and  practices…”   63   <Lazy>Yes  I  took  this  from  Wikipedia  too.</>  
  64. 64. cargo cult ux!  “Cargo  cults  conduct  rituals  imitating   the  behavior  they  have  observed  among   the  holders  of  the  desired  wealth  in   order  to  receive  the  wealth  themselves.”   64  
  65. 65. pics or it didn’t happen!     65  
  66. 66. pics or it didn’t happen!     66  
  67. 67. can i hammer this point even more?! “The  term  ‘cargo  cult’  is   invoked  as  an  English   language  idiom   meaning  to  imitate  the   superficial  exterior  of  a   process  or  system   without  having  any   understanding  of  the   underlying  substance.”   67  
  68. 68. (not so) clever impersonation!  Some  orgs  do   something   resembling  UX…   but  it’s  not  really   UX.     68  
  69. 69. I  think  some  of  you  have  seen   this  too.     Yes?     69  
  70. 70. now you know my problem !  At  a  former  company  I  was  asked  to  help   put  together  UX  teams  in  other  product   groups.        It  took  me  one  failure  to  realize  that  I   needed  to  give  them  more  than  this:     “You  need  a  user  researcher  and  an  interaction   designer  and  a  usability  analyst.  And,  uh,  a   manager  too.”     70  
  71. 71. my solution!  I  did  what  PhD’s   do  best:  I  wrote   a  paper.      And  then  I   remembered   who  my   audience  was,     and  cut  it  by  2/3.     71  
  72. 72. who was it for?!  Senior  managers   and  directors  who   needed  advice  and   consultation  on   how  to  set  up  a  UX   team.           72    Most  had  no  idea  that  they  would  have  to  change   processes  and  procedures  to  benefit  from  UX.    
  73. 73. what did I cover?! 73  
  74. 74. damn! that’s a lot.!  I  know!   74  
  75. 75. what i said about process! 75  
  76. 76. roles and responsibilities ! Product Management Business & Requirements Analysts User Experience Design Development Quality Assurance PMO Ideation Role: Approver/Driver Responsibility: Target audience definition, business model research, ID of value areas. Create customer use cases. Role: Contributor Responsibility: Review PM’s assumptions and high-level requirements. Role: Contributor Responsibility: Investigate target market needs at the level of individual users (workflow, success criteria). Role: Informed Role: Informed Role: Informed Design Role: Approver Responsibility: Contribute to design process. Validate adherence to customer business model and value. Role: Contributor Responsibility: Create and maintain business and functional requirements and specifications. Role: Contributor Responsibility: Design to meet market & user requirements, within constraints. Role: Contributor Responsibility: Manage feasibility and other technical considerations. Role: Contributor Responsibility: Create test cases and test plan from scenarios, requirements, use cases. Role: Driver Responsibility: Plan and manage plan for overall program of work. Development Role: Approver Role: Contributor Responsibility: Ensure that development meets requirements, elicit unknown/latent requirements. Role: Informed Role: Driver Responsibility: Implement the solution, meeting requirements within constraints. Role: Contributor Responsibility: Conduct iteration testing as modules are completed. Role: Informed Validation Role: Approver/ Contributor Responsibility: Ensure that solution meets use case requirements and delivers customer value. Role: Informed Role: Driver Responsibility: Conduct customer validation research to ensure solution viability. Role: Informed Role: Driver Responsibility: Assure quality – minimal defects, adherence to requirements. Role: Informed Release Role: Approver Responsibility: Approval authority for release signoff. Role: Informed Role: Contributor Responsibility: Approve enhancement from customer view. Role: Informed Role: Driver Responsibility: Release management. Role: Informed Discipline Phase
  77. 77. ux team services!Service Phase Description Provides: Contextual inquiry Ideation Investigation of users’ goals, objectives, tasks, and limitations/ constraints; at the users’ place of business (or other appropriate use context). Rich descriptions of users’ goals, motivations, environment. Task analysis Ideation Step-by-step, granular identification of users’ work tasks. Details of the users’ processes. User profiling Ideation Detailed reports of real users; what they do, how they do it, etc. A “library” of user profiles that can be used to guide design. Persona creation Ideation An abstracted description of users, based on the attributes of real users. A “design target” specifying who the design is aimed at. Role/task matrix Task/object matrix Task frequency & criticality ratings Design Additional details about who does what in a particular environment, as well as the importance of particular tasks. “Quasi”-quantitative information about users, roles, tasks, etc. Content strategy Design A plan for content to be provided, content providers, communications and communication modalities, etc. An action plan. Scenarios Use cases Process flows Content Design Designs describing the flow or transformation of information through a system, and how the system and user interact with each other. Information about how a design should work in the “real world” when implemented. Early-phase usability testing Design Testing the process flows and scenarios to ensure that they meet real users’ needs. Validation of the design and correction opportunities. Wireframes & prototypes Validation & documentation A lo- or medium-fidelity representation of the feature or product. A working system that can be tested in late-phase usability testing. UI / interaction spec Validation & documentation The formal, complete documentation of the feature or product’s user interface. A specification to code and inspect against. Visual design Validation & documentation Formal documentation of the visual design for the product or feature. A specification to code and inspect against. Late-phase usability testing Validation & documentation Usability testing using a working prototype or mockup. Validation of the design and correction opportunities. Summative usability testing End-of-cycle validation Usability testing of a finished version of the product, measuring key indicators such as average time-on-task, error rate, etc. Information to feed into the next lifecycle’s activities.
  78. 78. 78   ux team services (again)!
  79. 79. resources in the kit!  I  provided  crazy  amounts  of   templates,  data  sheets,   recruiting  forms,  report   formats,  etc.        None  of  this  is  brand  new;   most  of  the  content  has   been  around  in  various   forms.   79   When  you  steal  from  me,  you’re   stealing  (at  least)  twice!  
  80. 80. what did i tell the leaders?! 80  
  81. 81. what did i tell them?!  Hire  at  least  3  direct  contributors  –  user   researcher/usability  analyst,  interaction   designer,  visual  designer.          You  may  need  more  than  one  of  each,   depending  on  the  size  of  your  product.        Hiring  a  manager  or  a  director  is  also  highly   recommended.   81  
  82. 82. what did i tell them?!  Budget  for  between  $20,000  and  $60,000   USD  in  research  expenses,  depending  on  the   size  of  your  product  team  and  how  many   products  you  support.      But  if  you  can  only  get  10K  or  5K…  so  be  it.   82  
  83. 83. what did i tell them?!  You  can  spend  as  little  as  $5,000  or  upwards   of  $75,000  USD  on  usability  and  user  research   equipment.        (Update  for  2013:  you  don’t  really  even  need   much  equipment  today!)      In  any  case,  build  the  team  and  budget  the   research  dollars  first.   83  
  84. 84. and the big one…!  Be  aware  that  you  will  HAVE  to  change  your   ideation,  design  and  development  processes   in  order  to  successfully  implement  user   experience.        If  you  don’t  explicitly  make  room  for  design   research,  ideation  and  iteration  in  your   processes…  you  might  become  a  “cargo  cult”   UX  team.     84  
  85. 85. the results! 85  
  86. 86. so how did the kit go over?!  Meh.      At  first,  anyway.   86  
  87. 87. but after a while…! 87  
  88. 88. but after a while…!  It  took  more  than  a  year.  But  eventually  the   product  groups  started  making  the  transition   to  more  fully  incorporating  UX  activities.        They  didn’t  always  go  as  far  as  my  original   team.  But  they  went  further  than  they  had   ever  gone  before.     88  
  89. 89. things i wish i had covered! §  Agile  and  other   methods   §  How  to  deal  with   force  reductions   89  
  90. 90. caveats!  My  UX  kit  has  gaps.  It   doesn’t  cover  smaller  orgs   or  startups.          Use  at  your  own  risk!   90  
  91. 91. was it worth it?!  Absolutely.           91  
  92. 92. snappy conclusion!  Be  bold,  but  patient.        Organizations  resist   change.          But  they  need  change   to  grow  and  improve.     92    YOU  can  be  the  change  agent,  with  your  mad   UX  skillz.    
  93. 93. parting thoughts! You  might  not  get  to  focus  on  strategic  issues   yet.  But  start  thinking  about  it  now.       Start  talking  with  your  colleagues  about  the   long-­‐term  direction  of  the  products  and  services   you  support.     Find  the  problems  with  usability  testing  and   evaluation.  Fix  the  ugly  parts  now,  but  plan  to   overhaul  the  whole  experience.     93  
  94. 94. resources! The  UX  Kit:       http://shermanux.com/_files/UX_Kit_v2.pdf       This  deck  (updated  September  2013):     http://www.slideshare.net/PaulSherman       94  
  95. 95. some other takeaways!  Connecting  Cultures,  Changing  Organizations:  The  User   Experience  Practitioner  As  Change  Agent.  Paul  Sherman.   http://uxmatters.com/MT/archives/000162.php        Customer  Support  on  the  Web:  Don't  Call  Us,  We'll  Call  You.   Dan  Szuc.   http://www.uxmatters.com/mt/archives/2007/11/customer-­‐support-­‐on-­‐ the-­‐web-­‐dont-­‐call-­‐us-­‐well-­‐call-­‐you.php      The  Bizarre  Myth  of  Customer  Service:  An  Interview  With   David  Jaffe  http://www.infodesign.com.au/uxpod  (Look  for  #42…  see,  it   IS  the  answer  to  everything.  J)         95  
  96. 96. contact!  Paul  Sherman    http://www.shermanux.com    paul@shermanux.com    Twitter:  @pjsherman     96  
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