Crime is a social and economic phenomenon “a legal wrong that can be followed by criminal proceedings which may result into punishment.” Legal definition : Crime is an intentional act of commission or omission in contravention to the law of the land and accordingly punishable when proved in judicial proceeding
Conventional and new forms of crime White collar crime Organized crime Victimless crime
The term “cyber crime” was first coined by Barry Collins in 1980’s “Any criminal activity that uses a computer either as an instrumentality, target or a means for perpetuating further crimes comes within the ambit of cyber crime” A generalized definition of cyber crime may be “ unlawful acts wherein the computer is either a tool or target or both”
Capacity to store data in comparatively small space Easy to access Complex Negligence Loss of evidence
The cyber criminals constitute of various groups/ category. The following are the category of cyber criminals:• Children and adolescents between the age group of 6 – 18 years• Organised hackers• Professional hackers / crackers• Discontented employees
Hacking Theft of information contained in electronic form Email bombing Data diddling Salami attacks Denial of Service attack Virus / worm attacks Logic bombs
Trojan attacks Internet time thefts Web jacking
Internal Virus worms Trojan horsesComputercrimesTelecommunicati- Phone breaking Phone tapping Hackingon crimesComputer Embezzlements FraudsManipulationCrimesSupport of Data bases to Data bases to Money launderingCriminal support drug keep records ofEnterprises Distribution client transactionHardware and Software piracy Theft of computer Theft of tradesoftware and microchips secretsTheft
Classification of cyber crime 1. Against 2. Against Individuals Organizationa. their person & a. Government 3. Against Society at c. largeb. their property Firm, Company, Group of an individual of Individuals
Harassment via e-mails. Cyber-stalking. Dissemination of obscene material. Defamation. Unauthorized control/access over computers Indecent exposure Email spoofing Cheating & Fraud
Computer vandalism. Transmitting virus. Net trespass Unauthorized control/access over computers Intellectual Property crimes Internet time thefts
Cyber terrorism against the government organization. Distribution of pirated software etc.
CYBER TERRORISMScientific war againstGovernments
Cyber terrorism is the convergence of terrorism and cyberspace. It is generally understood to mean unlawful attacks and threats of attack against computers, networks, and the information stored therein when done to intimidate or coerce a government or its people in furtherance of political or social objectives.
LTTE AUMPerpetrator Group/Individual Group/IndividualPlace Sri Japan/US/Worldwide Lanka/London/Australia WorldwideTool Threats/Violence/Recruitm Violence/Recruitment/ ent/Education/Strategies Education/StrategiesTarget Government Governments Officials/RecruitsMotivation Social/Political Change World Domination
Pornography (basically child pornography) Polluting the youth through indecent exposure Trafficking Financial crimes Sale of illegal articles Online gambling Forgery
The Indian parliament considered it necessary to give effect to the resolution by which the General Assembly adopted Model Law on Electronic Commerce adopted by the United Nations As a consequence of which the Information Technology Act 2000 was passed and enforced on 17th May 2000. The Information Technology Act deals with the various cyber crimes in chapters IX & XI. The important sections are Ss. 43,65,66,67
deals with the unauthorised access, unauthorisedSection 43 downloading, virus attacks or any contaminant, causes damage, disruption, denial of access, interference with the service availed by a person deals with ‘tampering with computer source documents’Section 65 and provides for imprisonment up to 3 years or fine deals with ‘hacking with computer system’ and providesSection 66 for imprisonment up to 3 years or fine deals with publication of obscene material and providessection 67 for imprisonment up to a term of 10 years
To prevent cyber stalking avoid disclosing any information pertaining to oneself. This is as good as disclosing your identity to strangers in public place. Always avoid sending any photograph online particularly to strangers and chat friends as there have been incidents of misuse of the photographs. Always use latest and up date anti virus software to guard against virus attacks. Always keep back up volumes so that one may not suffer data loss in case of virus contamination Never send your credit card number to any site that is not secured, to guard against frauds.
Always keep a watch on the sites that your children are accessing to prevent any kind of harassment or depravation in children. Web site owners should watch traffic and check any irregularity on the site. Putting host-based intrusion detection devices on servers may do this Web servers running public sites must be physically separate protected from internal corporate network.
History is the witness that no legislation has succeeded in totally eliminating crime from the globe. The only possible step is to make people aware of their rights and duties (to report crime as a collective duty towards the society) and further making the application of the laws more stringent to check crime. Undoubtedly the IT Act is a historical step in the cyber world. Further I all together do not deny that there is a need to bring changes in the Information Technology Act to make it more effective to combat cyber crime.