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Jepson biofresh_bih2013

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Presentation given at Biodiversity Informatics Horizons 2013 conference, Rome 6 Sept 2013

Presentation given at Biodiversity Informatics Horizons 2013 conference, Rome 6 Sept 2013

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  • 1. Paul Jepson, Aaike De Wever & Astrid Schmidt-Kloiber Data mobilisation from the BioFresh perspective: past, present & future visions Co. 226874 Freshwater biodiversity status, trends pressure and conservation priorities
  • 2. BIH2013 – September 2013 – Rome, ItalyContract No. 226874 BioFresh in the Network of EU F7 Biodiversity Research •  Green = BioFresh partners •  BioFresh close to dense centre, but on the periphery of the centre. •  Network maps may identify potential for collaboration
  • 3. BIH2013 – September 2013 – Rome, ItalyContract No. 226874 Freshwaters cover less than 1% of the Earth’s surface yet are home to over 10% of all animal species Dudgeon et al. 2006 They possess immense natural capital in terms of the range and significance of ecosystem services Freshwater Biodiversity needs attention But, freshwater biodiversity is declining at an alarming rate
  • 4. BIH2013 – September 2013 – Rome, ItalyContract No. 226874 Water resource scarcity is considered a major threat to the security of social and economic systems A water-energy-food nexus is gaining influence as a framework for conceptualizing policies to guide transitions towards green economies. Biodiversity is not yet in this frame in any meaningful way Water Lives: but not yet in policy
  • 5. BIH2013 – September 2013 – Rome, ItalyContract No. 226874 A real and pressing challenge is how to simultaneously manage freshwaters as a resource for humanity and as medium for life." Going with the flow Our ability to answer broad scale scientific questions on the status and trends in freshwater biodiversity is hampered by the limited and fragmented data" Freshwater biodiversity and sound policy needs biodiversity informatics!!
  • 6. BIH2013 – September 2013 – Rome, ItalyContract No. 226874 The BioFresh project commenced in April 2010 to respond to this need 18 partners 9 Work-packages www.freshwaterbiodiversity.eu
  • 7. BIH2013 – September 2013 – Rome, ItalyContract No. 226874 Long tail, great potential Plot of the citations in Web of Science and Scopus for the contributing data sets to BioFresh's data-portal (2012)" Like many informatics project we have encountered the long tail of ‘dark data’"
  • 8. BIH2013 – September 2013 – Rome, ItalyContract No. 226874 What freshwater biodiversity data are out there? •  We only have a vague idea but know that large amounts are currently unavailable. •  Case study: GBIF has mobilised 3% of natural history collections data. Of 1200 possible data sets only 17 data sets predominantly freshwater specific. - must be more out there. •  Additional data we ‘know’ exists, but is hard to get our hands on is data collected by environmental agencies, under the WFD monitoring and in EIA reports. This is because there is no directory and/or its stored in government departments. In our view such facts underline the need for a freshwater biodiversity focused data mobilisation effort
  • 9. BIH2013 – September 2013 – Rome, ItalyContract No. 226874 Data mobilisation: what are we at? We have been actively reaching out to data holders and other networks •  Meta-databases for freshwater databases : 162 entries (54 under quality control), 100 more currently being integrated (mostly collected during WISER) •  Links to relevant data (e.g. GBIF) al •  Supporting 26 digitisation & mobilisation projects (contingency fund) •  Assisting data holders to prepare their data for on-line publication 0" 10" 20" 30" 40" 50" 60" 70" 80" 90" 100" BioFresh"related" datasets" external"datasets" con;ngency"fund" datasets" GBIF"freshwater" datasets"
  • 10. BIH2013 – September 2013 – Rome, ItalyContract No. 226874 Around  20  datasets  have  been  commissioned  through   the  BioFresh  con7ngency  fund     Example  1:  distribu7on  data  of  European  caddisflies   •  66  contributors  adding  580,000  occurrences  (addi5onal  to   GBIF  data)  –  420,000  from  adults   • Significance:  Group  is  key  environmental  indicator  previously   unavailable.  Will  form  the  basis  of  a  Red  List  of  Caddis  Flies     Example  2:  Fish  distribu7on  data   •  9  con5ngency  fund  datasets,  covering  13  countries  ,  adding   250,000    species  occurrences   •  Significance:  Comple5ng  spa5al  gaps  –  European  wide   analysis  of  scien5fic  ques5on  rela5ng  to  fish  now  possible     Example  3:  FADA  con7ngency  fund   •  Extension  of  taxonomic  backbone  with  around  30,000  names   of  macro-­‐invertebrate  species   •  Significance:  enables  linking    to  and  harves5ng  of  other   sources     New data sets digitized & mobilized
  • 11. BIH2013 – September 2013 – Rome, ItalyContract No. 226874 Some nice applied science outputs now emerging Identification of Key Biodiversity Areas for Africa a major output
  • 12. BIH2013 – September 2013 – Rome, ItalyContract No. 226874 Mobilising data has proved difficult •  Convincing data holders to contribute data is often not straightforward •  Tedious process to obtain metadata, involving a lot of contacting work, even for project partners’ datasets •  Filling out information ourselves improved response rates, but is obviously time-consuming •  Especially difficult was integrating datasets e.g. water framework directive (inter-calibration challenges) •  Processing datasets further involves frequent email exchange with data holders, esp. when we prepare the data (for publication using GBIF’s Integrated Publishing Toolkit)
  • 13. BIH2013 – September 2013 – Rome, ItalyContract No. 226874 Barriers to contributing to the BioFresh Portal: a survey of data owners •  Funding provision: funding unavailable for data curation, so no one is tasked with maintaining or making the data public." •  Incompatible technology: data stored in defunct, or difficult to integrate formats. Or, in a known format, but the scientist who put it together is no longer available (retired/RIP!) so data meaning lost." •  Early career researchers: Not keen on sharing data, as it has been painstakingly collected during their PhD, and they want to publish it and get as publications as possible from it, before it is shared with others." •  Time: scientists are increasingly busy and under resourced, as such they don't have time to clean and categorize data (applying metadata) for a mass audience. " •  Reward structures of science: not calibrated to support data sharing and re-use" •  Commercial imperatives: data part funded by water companies, pharmaceutical companies etc. Open data is not their paradigm and data ownership is often at a company rather than an individual level" Cf. Tenopir, C. et al. (2012) Data Sharing by Scientists: Practices and Perceptions. PlosONE 6: 1-21
  • 14. BIH2013 – September 2013 – Rome, ItalyContract No. 226874 Biodiversity informatics is an interdisciplinary science Mobilizing data and constructing data networks is not simply a technological and resourcing challenge" " It has complex science sociology! and culture dimensions! ! This aspect is largely over-looked in" Hardisty & Roberts Decadal View"
  • 15. BIH2013 – September 2013 – Rome, ItalyContract No. 226874 “Science Friction”: a metaphor and conceptual framework for embracing the social in informatics •  ‘Science friction’ : ‘the difficulties encountered when two scientific disciplines (or data holders) try to interoperate.’ •  ‘Data friction’: ‘Every movement of data across an interface comes at some cost in time, energy, and human attention... In social systems, data friction consumes energy and produces turbulence and heat - that is, conflicts, disagreements, and inexact, unruly processes.’ •  ‘Lubrication’: the practices through which people overcome friction without precise solutions or the need to modify components •  ‘Precision’: making it possible to join one part (dataset) more perfectly to another one (data standards) Edwards, P et al. (2011) Science friction: Data, metadata, and collaboration. Social Studies of Science 41:667-690
  • 16. BIH2013 – September 2013 – Rome, ItalyContract No. 226874 Our effort at ‘lubrication’ hasn’t yet been a great success! In short, encouragement is not enough! (cf: We envisage a special issue on contingency fund projects in a data journal (e.g. Pensoft’s Biodiversity Data Journal)
  • 17. BIH2013 – September 2013 – Rome, ItalyContract No. 226874 So what about this cultural shift? •  Is a cultural shift towards scientists embracing the principles of data access, sharing and reuse really taking hold? •  Is this a generational shift or could be it be accelerated? •  What’s the strategy – our theory of change?
  • 18. BIH2013 – September 2013 – Rome, ItalyContract No. 226874 Some options in our minds •  Data publishing gets similar status to other forms of publishing (??) •  Actively learn from our fund-raising and NGO campaign lobbying colleagues – i.e. techniques of relationship building, profiling and coalition building Tip: email last. Be a person, be prepared to roam and smooch to capture data. •  Actively learn from industry associations. E.g. Could National Science Academies produce best-practice standards for research institutions in same was as IMCO does for mining corporations •  Normalise data sharing principles in post-graduate training. EU (and UK in particular is a global centre and leader in Biodiversity PGT
  • 19. BIH2013 – September 2013 – Rome, ItalyContract No. 226874 The H2020 scientist & policy professional Disciplinary knowledge Professional friends Core specialism Interdisciplinary breadth
  • 20. BIH2013 – September 2013 – Rome, ItalyContract No. 226874 Thinking ahead… and ambitiously! To what extent is biodiversity informatics conceptualized and enacted in 4th wave internet computing?" " How do we conceptualize biodiversity informatics in terms of 5th wave mobile computing and responding to the technological forces of ‘mobile’ ‘cloud’, ‘social’ and ‘big data’?" " Might a shift in focus from mobilizing legacy data towards generating contemporary data face less ‘science friction’ and improve data density more rapidly?" " Might adding a focus on citizen science and automated sensing support simultaneous developments in science-policy- management interfaces?"
  • 21. BIH2013 – September 2013 – Rome, ItalyContract No. 226874 Biodiversity Informatics - extended vision Bigger science : better policy : effective governance Crowd- identification Engagemen t media NGO data Individual’s data Gov data Museum data Res.Inst. data Super computer muscle Cloud utility computing Smartphone Citizen interpreter s Citizen data collectors App 2.0 App Supersize Policy 3.0 Device Re-mastered Teaching Resources Research Resources Decision support tools Real Science online Decision support visualisation s Citizen recording Platform PortalPortal Mobile device Sensing 2.0 Automation, Minaturisation, networks DIY
  • 22. BIH2013 – September 2013 – Rome, ItalyContract No. 226874 Technologies for sensing biodiversity are under-going a step-change Research DronesMicro-sensors Sensor networks Our challenge is thinking creatively and strategically on how to embrace and integrate these
  • 23. BIH2013 – September 2013 – Rome, ItalyContract No. 226874 App-phones as rich sensors, mobile computers and a technological appendage of the human body and mind Supersize Apps vs. Apps 2.0 Smartphones as efficient, low cost and trendy delivery or collection media Earl. J. & Kimport, K (2011) Digitally enabled social change: Activism in the internet age. Cambridge. MA. MIT Press Citizen science is expanding but needs research investment to undergo a step-change
  • 24. BIH2013 – September 2013 – Rome, ItalyContract No. 226874 Jepson & Ladle in prep Conservation in the App-age Scrape of Google play = 7400 apps. •  Scrape of Google play = ca. 7400 apps •  Probably <120 data mobilisation apps •  Probably <10 App 2.0 •  Automatically identifies cicada plus 6 grasshopper species •  Walk, ride and sense •  Alert if senses a target species New Forest Cicada Hunt Survey of Nature & Conservation Apps
  • 25. BIH2013 – September 2013 – Rome, ItalyContract No. 226874 Mobilisizing citizen science for freshwater science Opportunity Many and varied communities of practice engage with freshwaters – government environmental agencies – anglers – wild swimmers Challenge Much of what we want to record is under the surface! Sources of inspiration Examples of innovative partnerships with Information Engineering (e.g. Zooniverse) & computer scientists (e.g. New Forest cicada hunt) Developments in App-phone hardware add-ons (e.g. water quality sensors)
  • 26. BIH2013 – September 2013 – Rome, ItalyContract No. 226874 Biodiversity Informatics - extended vision Bigger science : better policy : effective governance Crowd- identification Engagemen t media NGO data Individual’s data Gov data Museum data Res.Inst. data Super computer muscle Cloud utility computing Smartphone Citizen interpreter s Citizen data collectors App 3.0 App Supersize Policy 3.0 Device Re-mastered Teaching Resources Research Resources Decision support tools Real Science online Decision support visualisation s Citizen recording Platform PortalPortal Mobile device Sensing 3.0 Automation, Minaturisation, networks DIY
  • 27. BIH2013 – September 2013 – Rome, ItalyContract No. 226874 BioFresh platform: Towards intelligent openness: Royal Society principles • Accessible • Assessable • Intelligible • Useable + Science – policy context Decision support tools Research information Analysis tools Training resources
  • 28. BIH2013 – September 2013 – Rome, ItalyContract No. 226874 Decision support tool: IUCN/ESRI Freshwater biodiversity browser & Arc GIS App Supports environmental impact assessments, conservation planning etc. By making IUCN data on African fish, mollusc, dragonfly, crabs and freshwater plants at sub- catchment level See www.biofreshblog.com
  • 29. BIH2013 – September 2013 – Rome, ItalyContract No. 226874 •  Currently ~50 maps in various stages of implementation •  Dynamic currated atlas – anyone can contribute their nice map Decision support visualization: BioFresh Atlas of Freshwater Biodiversity Decision support visualization: BioFresh Atlas of Freshwater Biodiversity
  • 30. BIH2013 – September 2013 – Rome, ItalyContract No. 226874 •  Freshwater is a major area of policy. Investments in freshwater biodiversity informatics are needed to develop a science capable of meeting policy needs •  Mobilizing freshwater data sets has proved difficult. •  We need add and adopt a cultural approach •  Need to further invest and reinforce the building of a freshwater biodiversity data network •  Looking forward we need to explore and respond to the potential associated with the transformations in science and society resulting from new technological forces •  We need to simultaneously conceptualize the design of open- access, on-line science-policy-management platforms Summary