Office Ergonomics
What is Ergonomics?
• Ergonomics involves optimizing human
  performance by designing equipment and the
  environment to s...
What Ergonomics Involves


              Work
            Environment




              People
Tools
  &                  ...
What are
  Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs)?
• MSDs are chronic disorders involving muscles,
  tendons and nerves; soft ti...
MSD = CTD, RMI, RSI
   Cumulative Trauma Disorder (CTD)
     Repetitive Motion Illness (RMI)
       Repetitive Stress Illn...
Why is repetition a concern?
• Repetitive motion requires prolonged use of a
  muscle or muscle group. Without intermitten...
How is posture related?
• Joints have optimum, limited and maximum
  ranges of motion. If exceeded, stress may
  occur.
• ...
What Happens During Wrist Flexion




                  One muscle works
Types of MSDs
quick recovery
high frequency   • Muscular Disorders
                   – Myositis, Muscular Fatigue

      ...
Potential Work Station Disorders
•Hand/Finger Fatigue
•Shoulder/arm fatigue
•Eye strain
•Neck pain/Low back pain
•(CTDs)
•...
Preventing MSDs

• Take frequent micro breaks
• Keep physically fit
• Vary postures/tasks throughout the day
• Assess work...
Early Reporting is Necessary
•   Awareness of signs and symptoms
•   Ask questions
•   Report any signs and symptoms
•   L...
Risk Factors in Office
   Environments
         and
How to Arrange the
     Work Area
Assessing the Office Work
               Environment
•   Physical Work Area
•   Visual Requirements
•   Acoustics
•   Task...
Physical Work Area
Workstations and Work Surfaces
• Should provide sufficient leg space (designed for
  the larger person), spatial arrangeme...
Chair Design
• Seat pan height should be adjustable so feet rest flat
  on the floor or a foot rest with the knee joint at...
Chair Use
Adjust chair so that:
• Thighs are parallel to the floor
• Feet rest comfortably on the floor or on a foot
  res...
Keyboards
• Types - sloped, dished, stepped and split
• Should be positioned at elbow height or just
  below, so wrists ar...
The Keyboard
Position keyboard so that:
• Hands are in-line with the forearm; a neutral or
  straight wrist posture. It sh...
Pointing Devices
• Locate at the same height level as the keyboard
• Next to or as near to the keyboard as possible.
• Dif...
The Mouse
Position the mouse (pointing device):
 Beside the keyboard, to the left or right.
 So that it is within easy r...
Why not reach for device?

Muscles are
stronger
when at the
middle Flex
point.
Monitors
• Position at arm’s length, no closer than 20 inches.
• Screens should be perpendicular to the window or
  other ...
The VDT Screen/Monitor
Position monitor so that:
•The monitor is centered in front of
your body, behind the keyboard, not
...
Work Accessories
• Accessories should complement the work area
• A copy holder should be positioned close to the
  monitor...
Miscellaneous Issues
• Do not cradle the phone on the shoulder
• Do not lean on sharp desk edges
• Place the document hold...
Miscellaneous Issues (cont”d)
• Relaxed pen/pencil grip
• Scan with your eyes, not your head
• Place your foot rest at a 2...
Neutral Posture Evaluation
Work at Proper Heights
• Work at elbow height
• Maintain consistent work heights within the
  office space
• Avoid reachin...
Maintain Good Posture
• Maintain the natural curve of the spine
• Keep head/neck straight and erect
• Keep arms and elbows...
Seated Body Posture
• Upper arms and lower legs near vertical.
• Lower arms and thighs parallel to the seat
  pan
• Head s...
Minimize Direct Pressure
• Direct pressure inhibits blood flow and nerve
  functions resulting in numbness and “pins and
 ...
Visual Requirements
Visual Display Considerations
• Size of characters should not be too small
• Maximize color contrast between background
  ...
Lighting
• Inadequate lighting:      • Consider:
  –   fatigue, discomfort     –   brightness
  –   eye strain            ...
Lighting
• Lighting without glare
• Minimize glare with proper display and
  positioning
• Lighting requirements will vary...
Is Ergonomics Used Only to Prevent
                MSDs?
• Optimizing human movements can increase
  productivity
• Optimi...
Keep Everything within Easy Reach
• Make the work area user-friendly
• Organize paperwork, files and equipment
• Determine...
Work Accessories/Materials
• Place materials within 16 inches of the body
  to avoid reaching
• Keep materials within a 90...
Apply Task Variety
• Alternate body posture   • Combine tasks
• Adjust workstation       • Stand while using the
  height ...
Control Work Flow
• Utilize the computer software efficiently by
  creating shortcuts and macros
• Know the sequence of st...
Technology
Interactive Software
• Office Ergonomic Software aids in training
  employees on business habits that maximize
  proper bo...
Making Adjustments

•Verify that a new risk is not introduced

•Emphasis on good typing technique and
 posture, proper equ...
Stretching
Why Stretch?
• Work creates stress on certain muscle groups
  within the body
• Muscles stressed more than usual during wo...
Prevention
• Stretching should be used for warming up,
  cooling down and maintaining comfort
  throughout the work day
• ...
Types of Stretches
• Upper Back Stretch: While seated, clasp your hands behind your
  head, elbows out. Gently lean backwa...
Types of Stretches
• Elbow and Wrist Stretch: Straighten your elbow with
  your arm in front of you or at shoulder height....
Office Furniture Guidelines
Office Furniture Selection
• Office Ergonomics Guidelines should be used
  when selecting appropriate office furniture,
  ...
Using the Laptop Computer
Laptop Computers

• Concerns when using the Laptop Computer
  • Keyboard size
  • Pointing Devices
  • Not designed for lo...
Viewing Laptop Computers

• Take mini-breaks
• Keep the screen clean
• Control glare
• Angle the screen properly
• Adjust ...
Posture and Laptop Computers

•   Change positions often
•   Take periodic breaks
•   Type lightly
•   Keep hands and wris...
Posture and Laptop Computers

• Non-adjustable chairs:
    Place pillows, towels or books to add height
    Use books unde...
Using the Laptop Computer

• In a Car
• Do not try to use from driver’s seat
• Use only in the passenger seat

• On a Plan...
TRAINER
              Takeaway Tools
• For the Trainer/Evaluator
• Quick Guide to CTD Complaints
• Computer Workstation Se...
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Office Ergonomics Training

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An office ergonomics powerpoint presentation.
This training program is followed by actual workstation assesments.

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Office Ergonomics Training

  1. 1. Office Ergonomics
  2. 2. What is Ergonomics? • Ergonomics involves optimizing human performance by designing equipment and the environment to safely minimize effort. • Ergonomic designs are also used to eliminate or minimize the risk of Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs).
  3. 3. What Ergonomics Involves Work Environment People Tools & Job Task Equipment
  4. 4. What are Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs)? • MSDs are chronic disorders involving muscles, tendons and nerves; soft tissues • MSDs can be caused or aggravated by various risk factors - either alone or multiples of the following: – Repetitive motion – Forceful exertion – Awkward posture – Environmental factors
  5. 5. MSD = CTD, RMI, RSI Cumulative Trauma Disorder (CTD) Repetitive Motion Illness (RMI) Repetitive Stress Illness (RSI) Whatever the name, they occur over time. They differ from injuries such as cuts, bruises or the like which occur suddenly.
  6. 6. Why is repetition a concern? • Repetitive motion requires prolonged use of a muscle or muscle group. Without intermittent rest, the muscle will fatigue and may eventually become damaged. • Tendons connect muscles to the bones. With excessive use, they may become irritated causing tendonitis.
  7. 7. How is posture related? • Joints have optimum, limited and maximum ranges of motion. If exceeded, stress may occur. • Muscles work best when flexed, not fully stretched. • Forces on the body increase or vary as loads or forces shift. • All joints have neutral positions.
  8. 8. What Happens During Wrist Flexion One muscle works
  9. 9. Types of MSDs quick recovery high frequency • Muscular Disorders – Myositis, Muscular Fatigue • Tendon Disorders – Tendonitis, Tenosynovitis • Nerve Disorders slow recovery – Carpal Tunnel Syndrome low frequency
  10. 10. Potential Work Station Disorders •Hand/Finger Fatigue •Shoulder/arm fatigue •Eye strain •Neck pain/Low back pain •(CTDs) •Carpal tunnel syndrome
  11. 11. Preventing MSDs • Take frequent micro breaks • Keep physically fit • Vary postures/tasks throughout the day • Assess work areas • Organize your work area.
  12. 12. Early Reporting is Necessary • Awareness of signs and symptoms • Ask questions • Report any signs and symptoms • Listen to your body • “When in doubt ask more questions”
  13. 13. Risk Factors in Office Environments and How to Arrange the Work Area
  14. 14. Assessing the Office Work Environment • Physical Work Area • Visual Requirements • Acoustics • Tasks and Processes • Technology
  15. 15. Physical Work Area
  16. 16. Workstations and Work Surfaces • Should provide sufficient leg space (designed for the larger person), spatial arrangement and reach considerations (designed for the smaller person) • Work functions are critical to design • Chairs to fit the PC work area and writing area • Should provide sufficient room for work in progress, such as data entry materials
  17. 17. Chair Design • Seat pan height should be adjustable so feet rest flat on the floor or a foot rest with the knee joint at approximately 90° • Seat back height should be adjustable. • If armrests are present, they should be adjustable and not be an interference • When fully seated, approximately a 2-finger space between the back of the knee and the seat edge • The chair should have a 5-point base
  18. 18. Chair Use Adjust chair so that: • Thighs are parallel to the floor • Feet rest comfortably on the floor or on a foot rest. • The back support fits in the lower curve of your back. • Arm rests are just below elbow height, arms alongside the torso. • Position your chair before other workstation adjustments.
  19. 19. Keyboards • Types - sloped, dished, stepped and split • Should be positioned at elbow height or just below, so wrists are straight (neutral) • Should be flat or in a negative tilt to promote using a straight wrist posture • Articulating keyboard trays should complement work area, keyboard and mouse
  20. 20. The Keyboard Position keyboard so that: • Hands are in-line with the forearm; a neutral or straight wrist posture. It should be in front of your body center. • Arms alongside the torso, not raised or abducted. • Arms/elbows should be at or near a 90 degree angle • The keyboard should have a wrist/palm rest which is the same height as the space bar.
  21. 21. Pointing Devices • Locate at the same height level as the keyboard • Next to or as near to the keyboard as possible. • Different styles or options exist – Mouse – Track ball – Touch screen – Joystick – Light Pen
  22. 22. The Mouse Position the mouse (pointing device):  Beside the keyboard, to the left or right.  So that it is within easy reach, with the arm bent near 90 degrees during use.  So that it is at about the same height as the keyboard  So that you can keep your wrist straight when using it.
  23. 23. Why not reach for device? Muscles are stronger when at the middle Flex point.
  24. 24. Monitors • Position at arm’s length, no closer than 20 inches. • Screens should be perpendicular to the window or other light sources to reduce glare • Screens should be positioned so the top of the screen is at eye level • Position monitors lower for those who wear bifocals • Glare screens should be avoided, unless used for privacy
  25. 25. The VDT Screen/Monitor Position monitor so that: •The monitor is centered in front of your body, behind the keyboard, not off to the left or right. Upper right picture is bad. •If glare exists, tilt your monitor towards you, adjust lights, or pull shades. •If all else fails, try a glare screen.
  26. 26. Work Accessories • Accessories should complement the work area • A copy holder should be positioned close to the monitor, to minimize the amount of neck rotation • A task light should be positioned to illuminate work surface without creating a glare on the monitor screen • Foot rests should be avoided because they limit the individual’s ability to alternate posture
  27. 27. Miscellaneous Issues • Do not cradle the phone on the shoulder • Do not lean on sharp desk edges • Place the document holder next to the screen at same viewing distance as the screen • Keep under-desk areas clear • Keep non-work items on desk to a minimum.
  28. 28. Miscellaneous Issues (cont”d) • Relaxed pen/pencil grip • Scan with your eyes, not your head • Place your foot rest at a 25o angle • Do not sit on your legs.
  29. 29. Neutral Posture Evaluation
  30. 30. Work at Proper Heights • Work at elbow height • Maintain consistent work heights within the office space • Avoid reaching above shoulder height • Avoid “winged” elbows • Do not reach into low desk drawers while leaning to the side
  31. 31. Maintain Good Posture • Maintain the natural curve of the spine • Keep head/neck straight and erect • Keep arms and elbows in • Maintain neutral wrist positions • Avoid twisting motions • Avoid static or sustained postures • Utilize equipment such as a copy holder and headset to achieve good posture
  32. 32. Seated Body Posture • Upper arms and lower legs near vertical. • Lower arms and thighs parallel to the seat pan • Head straight forward • No slouching. Sit erect. • Relax; avoid tension
  33. 33. Minimize Direct Pressure • Direct pressure inhibits blood flow and nerve functions resulting in numbness and “pins and needles” sensations • Direct pressure affects the: – Palms, forearms, thighs and feet • Direct pressure can be reduced by: – Padding sharp edges of tables and chairs • Optimum goal is to distribute the contact area over more surface area of the body
  34. 34. Visual Requirements
  35. 35. Visual Display Considerations • Size of characters should not be too small • Maximize color contrast between background and characters • Screen size should be appropriate • Screen colors should be selected so they are not too “busy”
  36. 36. Lighting • Inadequate lighting: • Consider: – fatigue, discomfort – brightness – eye strain – glare – headaches – color – poor posture – quantity – positioning
  37. 37. Lighting • Lighting without glare • Minimize glare with proper display and positioning • Lighting requirements will vary from viewing the monitor to reading text • Suggested ambient illuminance of 30 - 50 fc • If task lighting is used, general/ambient lighting should be about 1/3 of the task lighting
  38. 38. Is Ergonomics Used Only to Prevent MSDs? • Optimizing human movements can increase productivity • Optimizing human motions reduces fatigue levels and has a positive impact on product quality and morale
  39. 39. Keep Everything within Easy Reach • Make the work area user-friendly • Organize paperwork, files and equipment • Determine location of items by: – Frequency of use – Sequence of use – Duration of use – Force required
  40. 40. Work Accessories/Materials • Place materials within 16 inches of the body to avoid reaching • Keep materials within a 90 degree arc of body center • Keep frequently used items handy
  41. 41. Apply Task Variety • Alternate body posture • Combine tasks • Adjust workstation • Stand while using the height phone • Reposition chair and • Take a 10-15 second keyboard mini-break every hour
  42. 42. Control Work Flow • Utilize the computer software efficiently by creating shortcuts and macros • Know the sequence of steps required to complete the task • Avoid “hurry-up-and-wait” situations • Assist others in understanding the task • Avoid “deadline” posture
  43. 43. Technology
  44. 44. Interactive Software • Office Ergonomic Software aids in training employees on business habits that maximize proper body postures and body mechanics and promotes proper work breaks
  45. 45. Making Adjustments •Verify that a new risk is not introduced •Emphasis on good typing technique and posture, proper equipment set-up, and good work habits •Not ergonomic gadgets •Document changes and their effects
  46. 46. Stretching
  47. 47. Why Stretch? • Work creates stress on certain muscle groups within the body • Muscles stressed more than usual during work will begin to tighten when work stops • Stretching helps avoid stiffness and soreness • Stretching can help improve flexibility and circulation in muscles and tendons • Stretching prepares the body for the work tasks
  48. 48. Prevention • Stretching should be used for warming up, cooling down and maintaining comfort throughout the work day • Stretches are preventative as well as rehabilitative
  49. 49. Types of Stretches • Upper Back Stretch: While seated, clasp your hands behind your head, elbows out. Gently lean backward in your chair. Hold for a count of 10. Repeat for a total of three (3) stretches. • Neck Side Stretch: Tilt your head to one side, putting your ear over one shoulder. Hold your opposite shoulder down, using your other arm to help. Hold for a count of 10. Repeat for a total of three (3) stretches for both the left and right sides. • Shoulder/Upper Back Stretch: Raise your right arm and grasp it below the elbow with your left hand. Gently pull your right elbow toward your left shoulder. Repeat with the opposite arm. Hold for a count of 10. Repeat for a total of three (3) stretches, each arm.
  50. 50. Types of Stretches • Elbow and Wrist Stretch: Straighten your elbow with your arm in front of you or at shoulder height. Gently bend your wrist back with the other hand, in both the downward position and then the upward position. Hold each position for a count of 10. Repeat for a total of three (3) stretches for both the left an right sides. • Finger Spread: With palms down, spread your fingers apart as far as you can. Hold for a count of five (5). Repeat for a total of three (3) stretches. • Eye Relief: Look away from monitor approximately 20 feet and blink easily.
  51. 51. Office Furniture Guidelines
  52. 52. Office Furniture Selection • Office Ergonomics Guidelines should be used when selecting appropriate office furniture, equipment and accessories • Adjustability and flexibility is critical • Specifications based on research and Americans with Disabilities guidelines
  53. 53. Using the Laptop Computer
  54. 54. Laptop Computers • Concerns when using the Laptop Computer • Keyboard size • Pointing Devices • Not designed for long term use.
  55. 55. Viewing Laptop Computers • Take mini-breaks • Keep the screen clean • Control glare • Angle the screen properly • Adjust brightness
  56. 56. Posture and Laptop Computers • Change positions often • Take periodic breaks • Type lightly • Keep hands and wrists neutral • Keep hands and wrists free • Keep fingers relaxed • Keep elbows close to body
  57. 57. Posture and Laptop Computers • Non-adjustable chairs: Place pillows, towels or books to add height Use books under feet Make a lumbar support with towel or pillow
  58. 58. Using the Laptop Computer • In a Car • Do not try to use from driver’s seat • Use only in the passenger seat • On a Plane • Not recommended for regular seats • Reserve bulkhead seat or exit row seat
  59. 59. TRAINER Takeaway Tools • For the Trainer/Evaluator • Quick Guide to CTD Complaints • Computer Workstation Set-up • Workstation Checklist • For the Worker (Handouts) • Neutral Posture Evaluation • Office Self Assessment Checklist • Types of Stretches
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