See Wiki Article “Galilee of the Gentiles” 1Maccabees 5:14-23 RSV 14 While the letter was still being read, behold, other messengers, with their garments rent, came from Galilee and made a similar report; 15 they said that against them had gathered together men of Ptolemais and Tyre and Sidon, and all Galilee of the Gentiles, &quot;to annihilate us.“ 16 When Judas and the people heard these messages, a great assembly was called to determine what they should do for their brethren who were in distress and were being attacked by enemies. 17 Then Judas said to Simon his brother, &quot;Choose your men and go and rescue your brethren in Galilee; I and Jonathan my brother will go to Gilead.“ 18 But he left Joseph, the son of Zechariah, and Azariah, a leader of the people, with the rest of the forces, in Judea to guard it; 19 and he gave them this command, &quot;Take charge of this people, but do not engage in battle with the Gentiles until we return. 20 Then three thousand men were assigned to Simon to go to Galilee, and eight thousand to Judas for Gilead. 21 so Simon went to Galilee and fought many battles against the Gentiles, and the Gentiles were crushed before him. 22 He pursued them to the gate of Ptolemais, and as many as three thousand of the Gentiles fell, and he despoiled them. 23 Then he took the Jews of Galilee and Arbatta, with their wives and children, and all they possessed, and led them to Judea with great rejoicing. Galilee Generally Defined Webster's Dictionary The region of Northern Israel; Sea of, lake of North east Israel, on the Syria Border. 1 Faussett's Bible Dictionary The northern part of Naphtali (which lay N. of Zebulun) was inhabited by a mixed race of Jews and Gentiles of the bordering Phoenician race (Judg. 1:30; 1 Kings 9:11). Tiglath Pileser carried away captive its Israelite population to Assyria; then Esarhaddon colonized it with pagan (2 Kings 15:29; 17:24; Ezra 4:2,10). Hence called (Isa. 9:1) &quot;Galilee of the nations,&quot; or &quot;Gentiles&quot; (Mt. 4:13,15,16) General Discussion Although it would seem simple to equate the region surrounding the lake as the &quot;Galilee&quot;, a closer look at the primary sources do not support this view. This is the result of Matthew 4:12-16 and his use of Isaiah 9:1 to associate Jesus fulfilling the text. The error comes when a reader does not understand the Jewish use of text and its association with language. A writer often with relate a text and its purpose but will be willing to do so at the expense of some technical accuracies. Often the use of an OT text in the NT or Inter-Testamental period will have a person fulfilling a text and use a particular phrase but alter some of the content to suite one or the other events. Perhaps change the names of some cites or even leave an event in the citation of the older text when the individual fulfilling it may not have done so exactly the way it was written. Mat 4:12-16 12 Now when he heard that John had been arrested, he withdrew into Galilee. 13 And leaving Nazareth he went and lived in Capernaum by the sea, in the territory of Zebulun and Naphtali, 14 so that what was spoken by the prophet Isaiah might be fulfilled: 15 a&quot;The land of Zebulun and the land of Naphtali, the way of the sea, beyond the Jordan, Galilee of the Gentiles-- 16 the people dwelling in darkness have seen a great light, and for those dwelling in the region and shadow of death, on them a light has dawned.&quot; Original Language Gentiles or Goyim גּוֹיִֽם means Nation or People (group) Only used of non-Jewsish people and often utilized as an insult.Galilee or Galeel גְּלִ֖יל means &quot;A cylinder, rod, district, a turning or folding&quot; a. The cylinder or rod description makes sense when one understands cylinder seals.They are impression tools much like our contemporary notary public seal. They are etched on a cylinder or rod like piece a little thicker than a pencil and two to four inches long. One would roll them out to leave the impression etched in them. When they compleeted a turning or folding the rod would have completed a district or total circumference of the seal and would be complete. A Galilee or district is the full rolling of a boundary the covers the circumference of a geographic region. When a person applies these ancient concepts to our contemporary thinking, the concept of Galilee and its affiliated definitions make sense in the life and culture these people lived and expressed themselves with this type of language. b. The Dead Sea Scrolls use this word in the war scroll to describe the circling of a Tower.QST 1QM War Scroll 9:10 The word גליל is used to describe the encircling of an enemy with an army. The simple definition here completing a circle around an enemy. A complete circle around something; a circuit. The geographical use of the term becomes simple. A complete bondary. The boundary line or circle in its complete circle. Galilee therefore is not a fancy title of a region but rather a descriptive word of a region, a circuit, a complete line that makes a region. The reason a cylinder is attached to the definition is perhaps the pervasive use of cylindar seals. Inscribed images that are rolled out into clay leaving an impression. Once the cylinder makes a complete circuit the roll or region of the image is complete. They are merely using metephores common to their time and culture to describe an area. It would be like me calling a city the &quot;City of City&quot;. Galilee of the Gentiles Boarders Defined Josephus give a description of its boarders and inhabitants in Jewish Wars 3.35-ff: 35 Now Phoenicia and Syria surround the Galilees, which are two, and called the Upper Galilee and the Lower. They are bounded on th west by the borders of the territory belonging to Ptolemais, and by Carmel; which mountain had formerly belonged to the Galileans, but now belonged to the Tyrians; 36 to which mountain adjoins Gaba, which is called the City of Horsemen, because those horsemen that were dismissed by Herod the king dwelt therein; 37 they are bounded on the south with Samaria and Scythopolis, as far as the river Jordan; on the east with Hippene and Gadaris, and also with Gaulanitis, and the borders of the kingdom of Agrippa; 38 its northern parts are bounded by Tyre, and the country of the Tyrians. As for that Galilee which is called the Lower, it, extends in length from Tiberias to Zebulun, and of the maritime places, Ptolemais is its neighbour; 39 its breadth is from the village called Xaloth, which lies in the great plain, as far as Bersabe, from which beginning also is taken the breadth of the Upper Galilee, as far as the village Baca, which divides the land of the Tyrians from it; 40 its length is also from Meloth to Thella, a village near the Jordan. 41 These two Galilees, of so great size, and surrounded with so many nations of foreigners, have been always able to make a strong resistance on all occasions of war; 42 for the Galileans are inured to war from their infancy, and have been always very numerous; nor has the country been ever destitute of men of courage, or wanted a numerous set of them; for their soil is universally rich and fruitful, and full of the plantations of trees of all sorts, insomuch that it invites the most slothful to take pains in its cultivation, by its fruitfulness; 43 accordingly, it is all cultivated by its inhabitants, and no part of it lies idle. Moreover, the cities lie here very thick; and the very many villages there are here, are everywhere so full of people, by the richness of their soil, that the very least of them contain more than fifteen thousand inhabitants. 44 In short, if anyone will suppose that Galilee is inferior to Perea in size, he will be obliged to prefer it before it in its strength; for this is all capable of cultivation, and is everywhere fruitful; but for Perea, which is indeed much larger in extent, the greater part of it is desert, and rough, and much less disposed for the production of the milder kinds of fruits; According to Josephus it consists of two divisions; Upper and Lower Galilee. His assesment of its people are a group &quot;inured for war from their infancy&quot; (J.W. 3.42). The region has a strong jewish population in agricultural villages averaging 15,000 in a single village (J.W. 3.43). Jesus traversed this region geographically when he &quot;went throughout Galilee, teaching in their synagouges, preaching the good news of the kingdom, and healing every disease and sickness among the people. (Matt. 4:23) I find Luke 4:23-32 Interesting because it seems to geographically begin to detatch the region of the Galilee in Jezreel or the coast from the edge by the Lake, the city of Capernahum. Jesus is preaching in Nazareth, clearly a village of Lower Galilee according to Josephus, yet Luke has him leave to enter the Galilee in Capernahum and is reflecting on the coastal Galilee from the story of Elisha as a foreign territory. This provides insight for two points, 1. It shows the Gentile presence of the Galilee region in OT times. 2. It shows the shift or mistaken reading of the text that centralizes Galilee around the lake detached from the coastal region. Luke 4:23-32 24 &quot;I tell you the truth,&quot; he continued, &quot;no prophet is accepted in his hometown. 25 I assure you that there were many widows in Israel in Elijah's time, when the sky was shut for three and a half years and there was a severe famine throughout the land. 26 Yet Elijah was not sent to any of them, but to a widow in Zarephath in the region of Sidon. 27 And there were many in Israel with leprosy in the time of Elisha the prophet, yet not one of them was cleansed--only Naaman the Syrian.&quot; 28 All the people in the synagogue were furious when they heard this. 29 They got up, drove him out of the town, and took him to the brow of the hill on which the town was built, in order to throw him down the cliff. 30 But he walked right through the crowd and went on his way. 31 Then he went down to Capernaum, a town in Galilee, and on the Sabbath began to teach the people. 32 They were amazed at his teaching, because his message had authority. (Luk 4:24-32 NIV) Military Campaigns in the Galilee of the Gentiles A survey of military campaigns through the Hellenistic Age reveals the strong Gentile dominance of this region along the coast. Alexander the great swept from Phoenicia and Tyre to Gaza. The Ptolemy's and Seleucid's will do the same to profit from Israel's resources and its advantage as a military buffer zone between one another. Victor Tcherikover highlights this cycle in his work &quot;Hellenistic Civilization and the Jews focusing on Antiochus III: The negotiations led to no positive result, and in 218 Antiochus renewed his offensive; he passed down the Pohnecian coast and invaded Upper Galilee. The cities of Philoteria (Bet Yerah on the shore of the Lake Kinneret) and Scythopolis (Bet Shean) fell into his hands without resistance, and he took the strong fortress on the summit of Mount Tabor by cunning. Antiochus rejoiced to find himself ruler and commander of this rich and grain-fertile land, and continued his offensive. Problematic Scholarship Scholars that have caused great problems: Avraham GeigerGeustaph Dolman has little to no information in Wikipedia on him  It seems he is the projector of the view that the Galilee was not populated by Jews in Jesus' day but rather God fearing Gentiles. This would make Christ an acceptable savior to worship since he was not of Jewish decent. Many of the SS in Germany were Lutherans. Their is no pagan material culture in the &quot;Galilee of Jesus&quot; until the time of the Revolt in 70 AD because their was never a Roman Legion presence there. It is only till after Roman conquest and the destruction of the Temple is a Roman Legion ever stationed in the Galilee itself. The Galilee is often located in the wrong area by Biblical scholars who possess a theological understanding of the Gospels but not a physical hermeneutic of the geography in the Holy land. The Sea of Galilee is called the &quot;Cradle of Christianity&quot; since the majority of Christs ministry takes place along it's shore and villages. in contemporary scholarship is placed around the 14 While the letter was still being read, behold, other messengers, with their garments rent, came from Galilee and made a similar report; 15 they said that against them had gathered together men of Ptolemais and Tyre and Sidon, and all Galilee of the Gentiles, &quot;to annihilate us.&quot; (1Ma 5:14-15 RSV) The greek work here that says “Gentiles actually means foreigners. This passage helps us understand the cultural setting of the Galilee. Primary Source Material Isaiah 9:1 1 But there will be no agloom for her who was in anguish. In the former time he brought into contempt the land of cZebulun and the land of Naphtali, but in the latter time he dhas made glorious the way of the sea, the land beyond the Jordan, Galilee of the nations.2 (Isa 9:1 ESV) Josephus Gives the Geographic Boundaries for the Galilee Josephus JW 3.35-43. 35 Now Phoenicia and Syria surround the Galilees, which are two, and called the Upper Galilee and the Lower. They are bounded on th west by the borders of the territory belonging to Ptolemais, and by Carmel; which mountain had formerly belonged to the Galileans, but now belonged to the Tyrians; 1Ma 5:20-23 20 Then three thousand men were assigned to Simon to go to Galilee, and eight thousand to Judas for Gilead. 21 so Simon went to Galilee and fought many battles against the Gentiles, and the Gentiles were crushed before him. 22 He pursued them to the gate of Ptolemais, and as many as three thousand of the Gentiles fell, and he despoiled them. 23 Then he took the Jews of Galilee and Arbatta, with their wives and children, and all they possessed, and led them to Judea with great rejoicing. Greeks Intend to Sell Jewish Slaves along the coast, Gentile occupied 2 Maccabees 8:10-11 reads &quot;10 Nicanor determined to make up for the king the tribute due to the Romans, two thousand talents, by selling the captured Jews into slavery. 11 And he immediately sent to the cities on the seacoast, inviting them to buy Jewish slaves and promising to hand over ninety slaves for a talent, not expecting the judgment from the Almighty that was about to overtake him.&quot; Pompeii Gives Territories on the Coast Pompeii gives territory to Gentiles in the region But later Caesar will give it back recognizing their ancestral territorial divisions. Josephus JW 1:156-166, 169-170 Ant. 14:74-76, 88. A Breeding Ground for Revolutionaries Paul H. Wright in his book &quot;Greatness Grace and Glory&quot; refers to the freedom loving Galilee. He points out the many individuals who stired rebelion from the region, or those impacted by its thinking, that were surpressed by the Roman Empire. Among them were Theudas, Judas the Galileean and his sons, Jacob and Simon, Athronges, the Egyptian false prophet and the Prophet of the desert. (Acts5:36-37, 21:38; Ant. xvii. 10.7; xx 5.1-2, 8.6, 8.10).[[Paul H. Wright Greatness Grace & Glory: Carta's Atlas of Biblical Biography. Jerusalem, Israel: Carta Publishing. 2008. p
THE ASIATIC CAMPAIGNS OF TUTMOSE III FIRST CAMPAIGN AND BATTLE OF MEGIDDO Year 22…. His majesty made no delay in proceeding to the land of Djahi (Syro-Phonecia in Egyptian language)… [ rebellion, gathered in Megid]do. His majesty entered upon that road which becomes very narrow, as the first of his entire army, while every country had gathered, standing prepared at its mouth.… THE ANNALS IN KARNAK Year 23, 1st month of the third season, day 4, the day of the feast of the king’s coronation—as far as the town of “That-Which-the-Ruler-Seized,” [ of which the Syrian name is] Gaza. “ That [wretched] enemy Of Kadesh has come and has entered into Megiddo. He is [there] at this moment. They said in the presence of his majesty: “What is it like to go [on] this [road] which becomes (so) narrow? It is [reported] that the foe is there, waiting on [the outside, while they are] becoming (more) numerous. Will not horse (have to) go after [horse, and the army] (30) and the people similarly? Will the vanguard of us be fighting while the [rear guard] is waiting here in Aruna, unable to fight? Now two (other) roads are here. One of the roads—behold, it is [to the east of] us, so that it comes out at Taanach. The other—behold, it is to the (35) north side of Djefti, and we will come out to the north of Megiddo. Let our victorious lord proceed on the one of [them] which is [satisfactory to] his heart, (but) do not make us go on that difficult road!” “ I [swear], (40) as Re loves me, as my father Amon favors me, as my [nostrils] are rejuvenated with life and satisfaction, my majesty shall proceed upon this Aruna road! Let him of you who wishes go upon these roads of which you speak, and let him of you who wishes come in the following of my majesty! [Then his majesty commanded] his army with the words: “Capture ye [effectively, my] victorious [army]! Behold, [all foreign countries] have been put [in this town by the command] of Re on this day, inasmuch as every prince of every [northern] country is shut up within it, for the capturing of Megiddo is the capturing of a thousand towns! Capture ye firmly, firmly!…” The ancient Near East an anthology of texts and pictures. 1958 (J. B. Pritchard, Ed.) (234-235, 237). Princeton: Princeton University Press.