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Lecture on Mesopotamian History

Lecture on Mesopotamian History

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  • Zigguret The earliest known ziggurat, dating to the Neo-Sumerian period (2112–2000 B.C.E.), Its builder, King Ur-Nammu (2112–2095 B.C.E.), Ur-Nammu’s ziggurat was repaired by many of the later rulers of Mesopotamia. Genesis 11:1-9 “Now the whole world had one language and a common speech. 2 As men moved eastward, they found a plain in Shinar and settled there. 3 They said to each other, "Come, let's make bricks and bake them thoroughly." They used brick instead of stone, and tar for mortar. 4 Then they said, "Come, let us build ourselves a city, with a tower that reaches to the heavens, so that we may make a name for ourselves and not be scattered over the face of the whole earth." 5 But the LORD came down to see the city and the tower that the men were building. 6 The LORD said, "If as one people speaking the same language they have begun to do this, then nothing they plan to do will be impossible for them. 7 Come, let us go down and confuse their language so they will not understand each other." 8 So the LORD scattered them from there over all the earth, and they stopped building the city. 9 That is why it was called Babel--because there the LORD confused the language of the whole world. From there the LORD scattered them over the face of the whole earth.”
  • Zigguret The earliest known ziggurat, dating to the Neo-Sumerian period (2112–2000 B.C.E.), Its builder, King Ur-Nammu (2112–2095 B.C.E.), Ur-Nammu’s ziggurat was repaired by many of the later rulers of Mesopotamia. Genesis 11:1-9 “Now the whole world had one language and a common speech. 2 As men moved eastward, they found a plain in Shinar and settled there. 3 They said to each other, "Come, let's make bricks and bake them thoroughly." They used brick instead of stone, and tar for mortar. 4 Then they said, "Come, let us build ourselves a city, with a tower that reaches to the heavens, so that we may make a name for ourselves and not be scattered over the face of the whole earth." 5 But the LORD came down to see the city and the tower that the men were building. 6 The LORD said, "If as one people speaking the same language they have begun to do this, then nothing they plan to do will be impossible for them. 7 Come, let us go down and confuse their language so they will not understand each other." 8 So the LORD scattered them from there over all the earth, and they stopped building the city. 9 That is why it was called Babel--because there the LORD confused the language of the whole world. From there the LORD scattered them over the face of the whole earth.”
  • Law Code of Ur Nammu
  • 825 BC
  • The Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III was carved on all four sides. Five registers of reliefs illustrate the obeisance of four rulers from Shalmaneser’s western campaigns; behind them are their servants bearing tribute. This detail shows the central actors of the second register from the top: Shalmaneser III, who raises his cup; his attendant with fly-whisk and flower; and between them, a figure labeled Jehu (Iaua), son of Omri, who kisses the ground at Shalmaneser’s feet, The divine symbols of the god Shamash (the winged disk) and the goddess Ishtar (the star) hover above the scene, which curiously resembles those in which the king offers libations to deities. Although Shalmaneser was suggesting with this obelisk that his victory against Jehu and the other western rulers was complete, he retreated from the area after exacting tribute and did not return to the west during the remainder of his reign. The Biblical World in Pictures; BAS Biblical World in Pictures . 2003; 2003. Biblical Archaeology Society
  • The Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III was carved on all four sides. Five registers of reliefs illustrate the obeisance of four rulers from Shalmaneser’s western campaigns; behind them are their servants bearing tribute. This detail shows the central actors of the second register from the top: Shalmaneser III, who raises his cup; his attendant with fly-whisk and flower; and between them, a figure labeled Jehu (Iaua), son of Omri, who kisses the ground at Shalmaneser’s feet, The divine symbols of the god Shamash (the winged disk) and the goddess Ishtar (the star) hover above the scene, which curiously resembles those in which the king offers libations to deities. Although Shalmaneser was suggesting with this obelisk that his victory against Jehu and the other western rulers was complete, he retreated from the area after exacting tribute and did not return to the west during the remainder of his reign. The Biblical World in Pictures; BAS Biblical World in Pictures . 2003; 2003. Biblical Archaeology Society
  • The Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III was carved on all four sides. Five registers of reliefs illustrate the obeisance of four rulers from Shalmaneser’s western campaigns; behind them are their servants bearing tribute. This detail shows the central actors of the second register from the top: Shalmaneser III, who raises his cup; his attendant with fly-whisk and flower; and between them, a figure labeled Jehu (Iaua), son of Omri, who kisses the ground at Shalmaneser’s feet, The divine symbols of the god Shamash (the winged disk) and the goddess Ishtar (the star) hover above the scene, which curiously resembles those in which the king offers libations to deities. Although Shalmaneser was suggesting with this obelisk that his victory against Jehu and the other western rulers was complete, he retreated from the area after exacting tribute and did not return to the west during the remainder of his reign. The Biblical World in Pictures; BAS Biblical World in Pictures . 2003; 2003. Biblical Archaeology Society
  • Skinned people alive and began crucifixion via impalling cf. Ezra Also horded wealth and did nothing for its defeated people unlike babylon, persia, rome etc. No military ethic at all.
  • Skinned people alive and began crucifixion via impalling cf. Ezra Also horded wealth and did nothing for its defeated people unlike babylon, persia, rome etc. No military ethic at all.
  • This 10.4-foot-high boundary stela was erected at Zinjirli by the Neo-Assyrian king Esarhaddon (680–669 B.C.E.). The occasion was Esarhaddon’s victory in 671 B.C.E. over the Egyptian king Taharqa and his ally Abdi-Milkuti of Sidon. The stela was set inside the gate leading from the lower town of Zinjirli into the citadel, where Esarhaddon had installed an Assyrian governor and a garrison. This monument’s size and location would have served to keep the king’s presence vivid among the population of Sam’al. The stela was carved out of local basalt and exhibits stylistic features that indicate local manufacture. But the shape of the stela, and especially the scenes on its face, are purely Assyrian, perhaps dictated by Esarhaddon himself. He is shown as the dominating figure, occupying the entire height of the relief, and pictured in typically Assyrian royal garment and crown. In his hands are possibly a goblet and a mace. In sharp contrast to Esarhaddon’s self-assurance, two diminutive figures at his knees raise their hands in supplication. Attached to their lips are ropes, which Esarhaddon holds in his hand. The smaller kneeling figure, Taharqa, was the king of Egypt defeated by Esarhaddon’s advance. Abdi-Milkuti, king of the Phoenician harbor city of Sidon and Taharqa’s vassal, is shown taller to further humiliate Taharqa, who was one of Esarhaddon’s more troublesome foes, the instigator of numerous rebellions. A variety of gods appear in the form of symbols above Esarhaddon’s head to witness the event commemorated by the stela. The long inscription in cuneiform Akkadian (not Aramaic) recounts Esarhaddon’s conquest of Memphis and his defeat of Tabarqa—who fled and was not taken prisoner as one might assume from the Zinjirli relief. Esarhaddon was the first to fulfill the Assyrian ambition to extend the empire as far as Egypt. The project took him eight years. Assyria’s hold on Egypt was hardly secure once the army had retired from the Nile Delta after the conquest of 671 B.C.E., to which this stela refers. Esarhaddon was returning to Egypt in 669 B.C.E. when he died in northwestern Syria near Zinjirli, at Harran. His son and successor Assurbanipal would continue his Egyptian conquests. The Biblical World in Pictures; BAS Biblical World in Pictures . 2003; 2003. Biblical Archaeology Society
  • This 10.4-foot-high boundary stela was erected at Zinjirli by the Neo-Assyrian king Esarhaddon (680–669 B.C.E.). The occasion was Esarhaddon’s victory in 671 B.C.E. over the Egyptian king Taharqa and his ally Abdi-Milkuti of Sidon. The stela was set inside the gate leading from the lower town of Zinjirli into the citadel, where Esarhaddon had installed an Assyrian governor and a garrison. This monument’s size and location would have served to keep the king’s presence vivid among the population of Sam’al. The stela was carved out of local basalt and exhibits stylistic features that indicate local manufacture. But the shape of the stela, and especially the scenes on its face, are purely Assyrian, perhaps dictated by Esarhaddon himself. He is shown as the dominating figure, occupying the entire height of the relief, and pictured in typically Assyrian royal garment and crown. In his hands are possibly a goblet and a mace. In sharp contrast to Esarhaddon’s self-assurance, two diminutive figures at his knees raise their hands in supplication. Attached to their lips are ropes, which Esarhaddon holds in his hand. The smaller kneeling figure, Taharqa, was the king of Egypt defeated by Esarhaddon’s advance. Abdi-Milkuti, king of the Phoenician harbor city of Sidon and Taharqa’s vassal, is shown taller to further humiliate Taharqa, who was one of Esarhaddon’s more troublesome foes, the instigator of numerous rebellions. A variety of gods appear in the form of symbols above Esarhaddon’s head to witness the event commemorated by the stela. The long inscription in cuneiform Akkadian (not Aramaic) recounts Esarhaddon’s conquest of Memphis and his defeat of Tabarqa—who fled and was not taken prisoner as one might assume from the Zinjirli relief. Esarhaddon was the first to fulfill the Assyrian ambition to extend the empire as far as Egypt. The project took him eight years. Assyria’s hold on Egypt was hardly secure once the army had retired from the Nile Delta after the conquest of 671 B.C.E., to which this stela refers. Esarhaddon was returning to Egypt in 669 B.C.E. when he died in northwestern Syria near Zinjirli, at Harran. His son and successor Assurbanipal would continue his Egyptian conquests. The Biblical World in Pictures; BAS Biblical World in Pictures . 2003; 2003. Biblical Archaeology Society

Mesopotamia Mesopotamia Presentation Transcript

  • Nile, Levant, Tigris, Euphrates
  • Nile, Levant, Tigris, Euphrates
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  • Nile, Levant, Tigris, Euphrates
  • Nile, Levant, Tigris, Euphrates
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  • ANCIENT EMPIRES Sumerian Empire           2600 - 2400 BCE Agade (Akkad) Empire   2400 - 2200 BCE Babylonian Empire         1950 - 1600 BCE Kassite Empire               1550 - 1100 BCE Assyrian Empire             1400 - 1200 BCE Neo - Assyrian Until 612 BCE Neo – Babylonian 626 - 539 BCE Persian (Medes) 539 - 330 BCE Greece 332 - 30 BCE Rome 30 - ff. AD
  • ANCIENT EMPIRES Sumerian Empire           2600 - 2400 BCE
  • During Sumerian Rule Temple was center King was high priest City State allegiances with city Gods but a national God for the union of States Language, culture, and religion were Sumerian
  • Sumerian Culture The king as divine steward
  • Sumerian Culture The king as divine steward Steward to build temples
  • Sumerian Culture The king as divine steward Steward to build temples Steward to Restore Temples
  • Sumerian Culture The king as divine steward Steward to build temples Steward to Restore Temples The king as steward of Justice
  • Sumerian Culture The king as divine steward Steward to build temples Steward to Restore Temples The king as steward of Justice The king as shepherd of the people
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      • Genesis 11:1-9
      • Readings from the Ancient Near East
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  • ANCIENT EMPIRES Sumerian Empire           2600 - 2400 BCE Agade (Akkad) Empire   2400 - 2200 BCE
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  • Readings from the Ancient Near East
  • ANCIENT EMPIRES Sumerian Empire           2600 - 2400 BCE Agade (Akkad) Empire   2400 - 2200 BCE Babylonian Empire         1950 - 1600 BCE
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  • Creation Epic
  • Flood tablet of the Gilgamesh Epic
  • Flood tablet of the Gilgamesh Epic READINGS FROM THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST
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  • Code of Hammurapi
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  • I rooted out the enemy above and below; I made an end of war I promoted the welfare of our land I made the people rest in friendly habitations; I did not let them have anyone to terrorize them. The great gods called me, So I became the beneficent shepherd whose scepter is righteous; In my bosom I carried the people of the land of Sumer and Akkad; They prospered under my protection; I have governed them in peace; I have sheltered them in my strength.
      • “ To cause Justice to prevail in the country To destroy the wicked and evil That the strong may not oppress the weak”
      • “ Any person feeling wronged in a legal matter should go in front of the statue of me as “king of Justice” and also have my inscribed stele read out loud to him so he can hear my precious words and my stele can explain the case to him. By understanding his legal situation, he can be comforted.”
      • “ If (such a leader) has intelligence and wishes to guide his land aright, he should heed the words which I wrote on my stele, and it shall surely show him the road and the way”
  • ANCIENT EMPIRES Sumerian Empire           2600 - 2400 BCE Agade (Akkad) Empire   2400 - 2200 BCE Babylonian Empire         1950 - 1600 BCE Kassite Empire               1550 - 1100 BCE
  • ANCIENT EMPIRES Sumerian Empire           2600 - 2400 BCE Agade (Akkad) Empire   2400 - 2200 BCE Babylonian Empire         1950 - 1600 BCE Kassite Empire               1550 - 1100 BCE Assyrian Empire             1400 - 1200 BCE Neo - Assyrian Until 612 BCE
  • ANCIENT EMPIRES Sumerian Empire           2600 - 2400 BCE Agade (Akkad) Empire   2400 - 2200 BCE Babylonian Empire         1950 - 1600 BCE Kassite Empire               1550 - 1100 BCE Assyrian Empire             1400 - 1200 BCE Neo - Assyrian Until 612 BCE
  • Chronology of Assyrian Rulers Ashurnasirpal II (883-859) Shalmaneser III (858–824 B.C.E.). Tiglath-Pileser III (744-727) Shalmaneser V (726-722) Sargon II (721-705) Sennacherib (704-681) Esarhaddon (680-699) Ashurbanipal (668-627)
  • Chronology of Key Assyrian Rules 8th & 7th Centuries: Ashurnasirpal II (883-859) Shalmaneser III (858–824 B.C.E.). Tiglath-Pileser III (744-727) Shalmaneser V (726-722) Sargon II (721-705) Sennacherib (704-681) Esarhaddon (680-699) Ashurbanipal (668-627)
  • Balawat gates cedarwood reconstruction, 9th century BC
  • Ashurnasirpal II from Nimrud
  • Ashurnasirpal II stela from Kurkh
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  • Lion hunt, 9th c Nimrud closeup
  • Ashurnasirpal symbolic scene, from Nimrud
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  • Chronology of Key Assyrian Rules 8th & 7th Centuries: Ashernasirpal II (883-859) Shalmaneser III (858–824 B.C.E.). Tiglath-Pileser III (744-727) Shalmaneser V (726-722) Sargon II (721-705) Sennacherib (704-681) Esarhaddon (680-699) Asburbanipal (668-627)
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  • THE TRIBUTE OF JEHU, SON OF OMRI READINGS FROM THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST IMPOSED TRIBUTE ON WEALTHY MEN OF ISRAEL 2 KINGS 15:20
  • THE TRIBUTE OF JEHU, SON OF OMRI READINGS FROM THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST CONQUERS THE TERRITORY OF NORTHERN ISRAEL (2 KI. 17:1-6) REPOPULATED THE NORTHERN TERRITORY ‘SAMARITANS’ (2 KI. 17:24)
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  • Black Obelisk
  • Chronology of Key Assyrian Rules 8th & 7th Centuries: Tiglath-Pileser III (744-727)
  • Tiglath pileser III, 728 BC
  • Tiglath pileser III, 728 BC CAPTURES PORTIONS OF NOTHERN ISRAEL AND IMPOSED TRIBUTE ON WEALTHY MEN ( 2 KI. 15:19,29 ) EXILED TRANSJORDAN TRIBES (2 KI. 15:29) FINDS UZZIAH (aka Azariah) STOPS PAYING TRIBUTE (FORGOTTEN THE OATH HE SWORE TO ME) ANET.
  • Tiglath pileser III, 728 BC
    • DAMASSCUS AND ISRAEL WAGE WAR LATER ON KING AHAZ TO JOIN AN ANIT-ASSYRIAN COALITION AND TIGLATH-PILESER III COMES TO HIS AID (II KI. 16:7-9; ISA. 7)
      • Ahaz does this against Isaiah’s counsel
      • Pays Tiglath-Pileser with Money from Temple.
    • PLACED HOSHEA ON THRONE (2 KI. 15:30)
    • ERRECTED A PAGAN ALTER IN THE TEMPLE COMPOUND (II KI. 16:10-14)
  • Annals of Tiglath pileser III from Nimrud
  • Hadad on back of bull, stele from Tiglath-Pileser III's palace in Arslan Tash
  • Chronology of Key Assyrian Rules 8th & 7th Centuries: Tiglath-Pileser III (744-727) Shalmaneser V (726-722)
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  • Chronology of Key Assyrian Rules 8th & 7th Centuries: Tiglath-Pileser III (744-727) Shalmaneser V (726-722) Sargon II (721-705)
  • Relief of Sargon II
    • Two key uprisings and regions where this took place:
      • Palestine, revolts inspired by the
      • Egyptians
      • Babylon, revolts inspired by the Elamites
  • Entrance facade, Sargon II's palace in Khorsabad
  • Relief of Sargon II
  • Winged bull gateway, Sargon's palace at Khorsabad
  • Relief of Sargon II Isaiah 20:1-6 In the year that the supreme commander, sent by Sargon king of Assyria, came to Ashdod and attacked and captured it- “ He threw him in shackles, fetters and iron bands, and they brought him Assyria, a long journey” (ANET pg 285)
  • Relief of Sargon II DEPORTED THE ISRAELITES IN SAMARIA 2 Kings 17:6-7 IMPORTED FOREINGERS TO SAMARIA MENTIONED IN RETROSPECT Ezra 4:1-10,17
  • Winged bull gateway, Sargon's palace at Khorsabad
  • Chronology of Key Assyrian Rules 8th & 7th Centuries: Tiglath-Pileser III (744-727) Shalmaneser V (726-722) Sargon II (721-705) Sennacherib (704-681)
  • Lachish letters
  • Lachish letters READINGS FROM THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST
  • BABYLON OFFERED TO HELP FIGHT ASSYRIA WITH THEM. HEZEKIAH TURNED DOWN THE ADVICE VIA ISAIAH (11 KI. 20:12-19) ASSYRIA ATTACKED JUDAH WHILE COLLECTING TRIBUTE FROM THEM 2 KI. 18:13-16
  • LAID SIEGE TO JERUSALEM BUT LEFT AFTER A PLAGUE FOR GOD? 2 KI. 18-19 ASSASINATED BY HIS SONS ADRAMMELECH AND SHARZER 2 KI. 19:37
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  • ASSYRIANS
  • ASSYRIANS
  • ASSYRIANS
  • ASSYRIANS 2 KINGS 14:25 “ JONAH PROPHESIES EXPANSION PRIOR TO TIGLATH PILESER III”
  • ASSYRIANS
  • Sennacherib prism
  • Sennacherib prism 2 Kings 18:13-19:36 2 Chronicles 32:1 – 32:22 Isaiah 36:1 – 37:37
  • Sennacherib prism
    • 2 Kings 18:13-19:36
    • 2 Chronicles 32:1 – 32:22
    • Isaiah 36:1 – 37:37
      • The envoy sent to read this letter is a common practice in Assyrian Governing. The local governor court official would go. In extreme cases a qurbutu i.e. an official from the very court of the King of Assyria, was sent. Possibly what took place here reading this letter to the people.
  • Sennacherib prism READINGS FROM THE FIRST CENTURY WORLD Josephus, Ant. X.i.4-5 Herodotus II, 141
  • Sennacherib prism READINGS FROM THE FIRST CENTURY WORLD
  • Sennacherib prism “ As for Hezekiah, the Jew, who did not submit to my yoke, 46 of his strong, walled cities, as well as the small cities in their neighborhood, which were without number,—by leveling with battering-rams (?) and by bringing up siege-engines (?), by attacking and storming on foot, by mines, tunnels and breaches (?), I besieged and took (those cities). 200,150 people, great and small, male and female, horses, mules, asses, camels, cattle and
  • Sennacherib prism sheep, without number, I brought away from them and counted as spoil. Himself, like a caged bird I shut up in Jerusalem his royal city. Earthworks I threw up against him,—the one coming out of the city-gate, I turned back to his misery.” The Biblical World in Pictures; BAS Biblical World in Pictures . 2003; 2003. Biblical Archaeology Society No mention of the 185,000-man loss is recorded in his annals.
  • Sennacherib prism Herodotus II, 141
  • Sennacherib prism “ During the night they were over run by a horde of field mice that gnawed quivers and bows and the handles of shields, with the result that many were killed fleeing unarmed the next day. And to this day a stone statue of the Egyptian King stands in Hephaestus temple, with a mouse in his hand, and an inscription to this effect: ‘Look at me, and believe.’” Note in this account Herodutus attributes the death to mice. The black plague was attributed to mice in the middle ages when in fact it was the flees on mice and rats that killed over 1/3 of the known world.
  • Sennacherib prism JOSEPHUS 10.1.4-5
  • Sennacherib prism JOSEPHUS also the king of Assyria wrote an epistle to Hezekiah and he threatened, that when he took him, he would utterly destroy him, unless he now opened the gates
  • Sennacherib prism JOSEPHUS Herodotus does indeed give us this history "Now when Sennacherib was returning from his Egyptian war to Jerusalem, he found his army under Rabshakeh his general in danger [by a plague], … he fled with the rest of his forces to his own kingdom, and to his city Nineveh… and died by the hands of his elder sons…
  • Broad Wall, built by King Hezekiah
  • Broad Wall of Hezekiah from east
  • Hezekiah's Pool from Petra Roof aka Amygdalon Pool, Towers Pool, Pool of the Patriarch’s Bath; from Herod’s time
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  • READINGS FROM THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST 2 KINGS 20:20
  • City of David from south
  • Siloam Pool
  • View up Central Valley by Pool of Siloam
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  • Siloam Pool JOHN 7:37-38
  • Chronology of Key Assyrian Rules 8th & 7th Centuries: Tiglath-Pileser III (744-727) Shalmaneser V (726-722) Sargon II (721-705) Sennacherib (704-681) Esarhaddon (680-699)
  • A decree was given that Babylon was to lie in ruins 70 years (like the captivity of Israel in Babylon that would occur years later) Esarhadden comes in to rebuild Babylon and gain the favor of the people It was said Marduk saw the writing decreed for 70 years but turned the inscription upside down making it only 11 when rebuilding began with Esarhadden (in cuneiform 70 when turned upside down is 11).
  • Chronology of Key Assyrian Rules 8th & 7th Centuries: Tiglath-Pileser III (744-727) Shalmaneser V (726-722) Sargon II (721-705) Sennacherib (704-681) Esarhaddon (680-699) Asburbanipal (668-627)
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    • Son of Esarhaddon
    • Attributed as the King who imported the Samaritans into Samaria (Ezra 4)
    • Imprisoned king Manasseh in Nineveh 2 Chron. 33:11
    • Continued population transfer policy Ezek. 4:2
    • Demanded vassals swear allegiance to Ashur, chief Assyrian deity 2 Ki. 21:2-9
  • Chronology of Key Assyrian Rules 8th & 7th Centuries: Tiglath-Pileser III (744-727) Shalmaneser V (726-722) Sargon II (721-705) Sennacherib (704-681) Esarhaddon (680-699) Ashurbanipal (668-627)
  • Ashurbanipal's court scholars list
  • Babylonian Chronicle, 615-609 BC with Nineveh's destruction
  • Babylonian Chronicle, 615-609 BC with Nineveh's destruction Nahum 1:15 Nahum 3:15 Nahum 3:19
  • ANCIENT EMPIRES Sumerian Empire           2600 - 2400 BCE Agade (Akkad) Empire   2400 - 2200 BCE Babylonian Empire         1950 - 1600 BCE Kassite Empire               1550 - 1100 BCE Assyrian Empire             1400 - 1200 BCE Neo - Assyrian Until 612 BCE Neo – Babylonian 626 - 539 BCE
  • Babylonian Chronicle, 615-609 BC with Nineveh's destruction
  • Babylonian Chronicle, 605-595 with capture of Jerusalem
  • Burnt House
  • Burnt House table and water jar
  • Nabonidus cylinder with prayer for himself and son Belshazzar
  • ANCIENT EMPIRES Sumerian Empire           2600 - 2400 BCE Agade (Akkad) Empire   2400 - 2200 BCE Babylonian Empire         1950 - 1600 BCE Kassite Empire               1550 - 1100 BCE Assyrian Empire             1400 - 1200 BCE Neo - Assyrian Until 612 BCE Neo – Babylonian 626 - 539 BCE Persian (Medes) 539 - 330 BCE
  • Cyrus Cylinder
  • Cyrus Cylinder READINGS FROM THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST cf. Ezra 1:1-3
  • The Moabite Stone (a.k.a. Mesha Stele)
  • Qumran scroll jar