Rethinking Parking

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Increasing off-street parking supply is not as useful as you might think. Only on-street parking management can solve on-street parking problems. Three ways parking can cause congestion. The harm caused by high parking minimums. A map of reform options. Adaptive Parking as a promising alternative. Presented in Mumbai at Studio X on 24 October 2013.

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Rethinking Parking

  1. 1. Rethinking Parking Paul Barter http://www.reinventingparking.org/ http://www.adb.org/publications/parking-policy-asian-cities
  2. 2. Is parking like toilets? Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking What is parking? Infrastructure needed on every site
  3. 3. Is parking like the local streets? Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking What is parking? Infrastructure serving multiple sites within each local area
  4. 4. Is parking like restaurants? Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking What is parking? A real-estate service serving an area Photo: Matthew Roth
  5. 5. Conventional approach Worldwide, cities model parking efforts on the USA’s conventional suburban approach: Parking is on-site infrastructure Every site needs enough parking for its own demand (Like toilets with buildings) Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking Source Seth Goodman http://graphingparking.wordpress.com/ 2013/02/06/parking-requirements-for-restaurants/ Do high parking norms help?
  6. 6. Conventional approach efforts in South and Southeast Asia http://www.adb.org/publications/parking-policy-asian-cities Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking The conventional approach in Asia Do high parking norms help?
  7. 7. Increasing off-street supply is not as useful as you may think It is common for off-street parking to be under-used even when nearby on- street parking is chaotic ESPECIALLY when on-street parking is chaotic Shenzhen, China Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking Do high parking norms help?
  8. 8. Dhaka Indonesia Increasing off-street supply is not as useful as you may think Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking Do high parking norms help?
  9. 9. Daoli district, Harbin, China Photos from NelsonNygaard and ITDP’s study Increasing off-street supply is not as useful as you may think Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking Do high parking norms help?
  10. 10. No amount of off-street parking will magically attract vehicles if it is easier and cheaper to park in the streets Dhaka Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking Do high parking norms help?
  11. 11. Only on-street management can solve on-street problems Efficient pricing increases perceived capacity of on-street parking How? Mostly NOT by shifts to public transport! Primarily by nudging long- duration parking away from busiest places Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking Do high parking norms help? Makati, Metro Manila
  12. 12. On-street management helps with off-street supply too Improves willingness to pay for off-street parking Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking Do high parking norms help? Seoul, Korea
  13. 13. 1. Obstruction Usual lesson taken? Remove parking from streets More off-street parking Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking THREE ways parking can cause congestion Palembang, Indonesia Do high parking norms help?
  14. 14. 2. Parking search traffic FULL on-street parking causes ‘cruising for parking’, double parking, and waiting Even if the parking itself is orderly and no obstruction Seoul, Korea Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking THREE ways parking can cause congestion Do high parking norms help?
  15. 15. 3. Traffic generation In dense cities, parking supply efforts can quickly create more parking than surrounding road network can cope with Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking THREE ways parking can cause congestion Bangkok Do high parking norms help?
  16. 16. High parking minimums are a ‘fertility drug for cars’ Auckland, New Zealand Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking Do high parking norms help?
  17. 17. High parking minimums are an obstacle to transit-oriented development Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking Do high parking norms help?
  18. 18. High parking minimums harm housing affordability Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking Do high parking norms help?
  19. 19. High parking minimums (and government- built parking) involve regressive subsidies and unjust cross-subsidies towards motorists A new, heavily subsidized parking structure in Delhi Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Do high parking norms help?
  20. 20. High (and rigid) parking norms hasten blight of old urban districts Near the center of Houston, USA (via Google Maps) Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking Do high parking norms help?
  21. 21. A “map” of reform options Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking Every site should have its own parking Parking facilities serve whole neighbourhoods Parking is “infrastructure” 1. conventional 2. parking management Parking is a “real-estate based service” 3. Responsive With sub-types distinguished by parking policy goals (especially regarding parking supply) So what else can we do?
  22. 22. 1. Moderate the conventional suburban approach Same assumptions but a moderated goal: Avoid excessive wasteful parking supply, not just shortage For example, King County, Washington, USA: “Right-sizing” of parking requirements Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking http://www.rightsizeparking.org/ So what else can we do?
  23. 23. 2. “Parking management” Parking is still ‘infrastructure’ but now for whole area Active management (prices, eligibility, time-limits, sharing, supply, etc.) Various goals Management often favours residents and retailers Many cities limit parking supply in city centres Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking So what else can we do?
  24. 24. Conventional approach works badly in old areas Initially tried building public parking facilities Found they still had no choice but to manage on- street more vigorously Prompts the “parking management” MINDSET Parking is infrastructure (like streets and bus stops) Mostly planned district by district, not site by site Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking Inner cities in the West (especially Europe) So what else can we do?
  25. 25. ‘Parking management’ Many tools Various goals Manages conflict Tools: pricing, restricted eligibility, time-limits, design, sharing, public parking not private, parking taxes, supply adjustments Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking Inner cities in the West So what else can we do?
  26. 26. City Centre parking supply restriction To limit traffic And for public realm improvements See also Seoul in Korea Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking Nyhavn in Copenhagen – before and after 1980 Source: Kristian Skovbakke Villadsen, May 2012 Inner cities in the West So what else can we do?
  27. 27. Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking 3. Responsive Parking is a real-estate based service (like meeting rooms) serving each area Make on-street prices responsive (occupancy target) Make off-street supply choices responsive to context Involve very local stakeholders Source: Shoup, D. The High Cost of Free Parking So what else can we do?
  28. 28. Responsive: Donald Shoup’s proposals i. Price on-street parking for 85% occupancy ii. Use revenue as desired by local stakeholders iii. Abolish minimum parking requirements Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking So what else can we do?
  29. 29. Responsive (de facto) in Japan Almost no on-street parking Parking minimums are low and exempt small buildings Proof of parking law In inner areas of Japanese cities, most parking is commercial and supply and prices depend primarily on market conditions in each area Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking So what else can we do?
  30. 30. Adaptive Parking A variation on, and extension of, Donald Shoup’s proposals Nudge policies along these five reform directions to make your parking system more responsive to local context Share! (make most parking shared or open to the public) Price! (price to prevent queues and cruising for parking) Sweeten! (make stakeholders happy) Relax! (about supply) Choice! (improve options and ensure competition in parking) For more information see www.reinventingparking.org Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking So what else can we do?
  31. 31. Adaptive Parking Share! (make most parking shared or open to the public) Foster ‘park-once districts’ Discourage this Australia Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking Various cities have incentives for parking with buildings to be open to the public Shared parking, like shared seating at food courts, is much more efficient So what else can we do?
  32. 32. Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking San Francisco has an ambitious version (SFPark) but many cities do this to some extent. This is Central Seattle for example. Adaptive Parking Price! (price with the aim of preventing queues and cruising for parking) For example, have an on-street OCCUPANCY TARGET If >>85% full THEN ↑ price If <<85% full THEN ↓ price Otherwise no change See http://www.seattle.gov/transportation/parking/paidparking.htm So what else can we do?
  33. 33. Adaptive Parking Sweeten! (make stakeholders happy) For example, spend local parking revenue very locally Parking Benefit Districts are one possible mechanism Singapore Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking So what else can we do?
  34. 34. Adaptive Parking Despite high car ownership, Japan has very low parking requirements and exempts small buildings Relax! (about supply) Many jurisdictions have abolished parking requirements, with little evidence of ill-effects: For example, England, Berlin, central parts of San Francisco, New York, Boston, Portland and Seattle and city centres in Australia. http://beta.adb.org/publications/parking-policy-asian-cities Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking So what else can we do?
  35. 35. Adaptive Parking Parking options Alternatives to driving a private car Counter “my car is necessary” pleas Choice! (improve options and ensure competition in parking) Tokyo Ahmedabad Sydney Vienna Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking So what else can we do?
  36. 36. A “map” of reform options Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking Every site should have its own parking Parking facilities serve whole neighbourhoods Parking is “infrastructure” 1. conventional 2. parking management Parking is a “real-estate based service” 3. Responsive So what else can we do? http://www.reinventingparking.org/

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