'Learning from Parking Policies in Asia' for Rosario Conference

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Presented in May 2011 at the CONFERENCE ON SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT, AIR QUALITY AND CLIMATE CHANGE FOR LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN. HOW TO ACHIEVE SUSTAINABLE URBAN TRANSPORT? See …

Presented in May 2011 at the CONFERENCE ON SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT, AIR QUALITY AND CLIMATE CHANGE FOR LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN. HOW TO ACHIEVE SUSTAINABLE URBAN TRANSPORT? See http://www.cleanairinstitute.org/evento_rosario_program_r.php

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  • 1. Learning from Parking Policies in AsiaBased on a Study commissioned by ADB under RETA 6416: A Development Framework for Sustainable Urban Transport - Parking Policy in Asia: Status, Comparisons and Potential Paul Barter Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy National University of Singapore paulbarter@nus.edu.sg http://www.reinventingparking.org/ Photo: Zaitun Kasim
  • 2. Summary1. Parking policy: big choices2. Suitability of the main parking policy approaches to different contexts3. Striking contrasts among Asian city parking policy approaches4. Lessons
  • 3. 1. Parking policy: big choicesShould each buildingsite have its owndedicated parking?ORShould most parkingserve its whole vicinity?
  • 4. Parking policy: big choicesa. ‘Conventional’ approaches – parking as ancillary infrastructure for each building (like toilets)b. ‘Parking management’ approaches – Parking as infrastructure for whole neighborhoods (like streets) – Parking as a tool for wider policy goalsc. Market-oriented approaches – parking as a real-estate based service locality by locality (like hot food outlets)
  • 5. Parking policy: big choicesApproaches to Central goalsparking policy Avoid parking scarcity/spillover (viaConventional minimum parking requirements) Serve wider urban & transport policyParking goals (via wide range of policy tools).management For example, constrain car travel to certain locations by limiting parking supply Ensure demand, supply andMarket-based prices are responsive to each other
  • 6. 1. Parking policy: big choices2. Suitability of the main parking policy approaches to different contexts3. Striking contrasts among Asian city parking policy approaches4. Lessons
  • 7. 2. Suitability of the main parking policy approaches to different contexts (at least in the West) Parking management approachesAutocentric conventional approach are common in inner urban areasdominates auto-oriented suburban areasConstraint-focused parking management City centres often have market parking as(for TDM) in transit-oriented city centres a by-product of parking-scarce context
  • 8. Conventional parking policy tends to promote automobile dependence Los Angeles
  • 9. Conventional parking policy can blight older, dense areas Near Houston’s city centre
  • 10. The conventional approach is a response to fear of on-street chaos. But in dense, mixed-use areas, getting good control of on-streetparking is essential no matter what parking policy approach you adopt Dhaka
  • 11. Market-oriented approach relatively untested• Professor Donald Shoup (‘The High Cost of Free Parking’) suggests: – Performance pricing for on-street parking – Abolish minimum parking requirements (since now we don’t need to worry about spillover)• Trials of performance pricing Source: Shoup, D. The High Cost of Free Parking Shoup, (eg see www.SFPark.org)• Accidental examples in many city centers? 11
  • 12. Parking management works! It is tried and tested in many cities but can be challenging to implement unless the need is very clear In Sydney• Can be complex• Can involve conflict• Parking management for TDM especially needs political will … – Strong green movement – Acute congestion – Acute parking problems, and – Adequate alternatives
  • 13. ‘Park-once neighbourhoods’• Parking management and market-oriented approaches are best suited to ‘Park-once neighborhoods’• This means that most parking is in shared parking that is open to the public and is usually priced (even parking within buildings)
  • 14. 1. Parking policy: big choices2. Suitability of the main parking policy approaches to different contexts3. Striking contrasts among Asian city parking policy approaches4. Lessons
  • 15. 3. There are striking contrasts among Asian city parking policy approachesADB-sponsored 14-city study of parking policy in AsiaI expected parking management to be common: Because most Asian city areas have ideal conditions for park-once neighborhoods -- High urban densities; mixed-use urban fabric; High use of non-car modes; Acute problems arising from rapid motorizationSurprise! All of the cities use minimum parking requirements Only Seoul had vigorous parking management approach (in its business districts)
  • 16. Contrasting Asian responses to their emerging parking problems• As motorization arrived, ALL of the Asian cities sought ways to increase parking SUPPLY – Some focused mainly on raising their minimum parking requirements – Several cities focused also on public-sector parking supply• But a few learned to NOT WORRY about parking supply!
  • 17. Minimum parking requirements atcomparable commercial buildings versus approximate car ownership
  • 18. Tokyo (and Japan generally)• Minimum parking requirements but very low rates and exempt small buildings• Very limited on-street parking with improved control (and not allowed overnight!)• Some government supply was built in the past but it is now market priced • Throughout Japan, very low• Ubiquitous commercial parking parking requirements but no• Proof-of-parking rule parking shortage problem (prove access to a near-home parking place • Park-once neighborhoods before registering any car) are the norm
  • 19. Exempting small buildings from requiring parking Floor area threshold below which there are no parking requirementsTokyo Yes (1,500 m2 or 2,000 m2). Above the threshold, parking requirements phase in gradually according to a formula . At full force only from 6,000 m2 floor area.Guangzhou Yes (500 m2)Taipei city Yes (300 m2 or 500 m2)Bangkok Yes (commercial, office, shopping malls: 300 m2; condominiums: 60 m2 per unit; hotels: 30 rooms; restaurants: 300 m2; entertainment buildings: 500 seats)Hong Kong Small, street-side retail serving local residents is generally exemptAhmedabad Yes (60 m2)Hanoi Low-rise residential buildings exemptBeijing Yes?Seoul No?Jakarta No?Singapore NoKuala Lumpur NoManila NoDhaka No
  • 20. Tokyo has local parking markets in many areas In Tokyo
  • 21. Tokyo has local parking markets in many areas In Tokyo
  • 22. Bangkok, Jakarta, Kuala Lumpur, and Manila• Fear of on-street parking chaos• Regular increases in minimum parking requirements seen as the answer• Little government-provided parking• Low parking prices (even though pricing is common)
  • 23. Ahmedabad, Dhaka, Hanoi• Weak on-street parking management = on-street parking chaos• Policy efforts (so far) focus on BOTH minimum parking requirements AND local government-provided parking
  • 24. Hong Kong, Seoul, and Singapore• Increasingly effective on-street parking management• Shifting away from supply focus• Parking requirements but with effort to make them realistic (Singapore and Hong Kong lowered their minimum requirements when found to have been too high!)• Parking maximums in Seoul’s CBDs• Pricing widespread
  • 25. Beijing, Guangzhou, and Taipei• Modest parking standards• Keen on government-provided supply (but Taipei has abandoned supply focus)• Increasingly effective on-street parking management with pricing• Off-street pricing widespread But problem: mainland Chinese cities have parking price controls• In Taipei, government parking now close to market priced• Possibly tending towards Japan model?
  • 26. 1. Parking policy: big choices2. Suitability of the main parking policy approaches to different contexts3. Striking contrasts among Asian city parking policy approaches4. Lessons
  • 27. 5. Lessons• Apply parking management strongly if you can• But if that is not politically possible don’t just follow USA-style conventional parking policy that points towards automobile-dependence!• Experience in eastern Asia suggests that fears of parking shortage crises are exaggerated• There are pragmatic middle ways
  • 28. Lessons• Several eastern Asian cities have what we might call a ‘relaxed pragmatic’ version of the conventional approach to parking policy• They don’t worry about shortages since their ‘park- once neighborhoods’ seem to cope (especially when prices are left to market forces)• They didn’t bother increasing parking requirements as car ownership and use increased (they seem to see on-site parking as just a contribution to neighborhood supply)
  • 29. More detailed and refined policy approach categories Approaches to Central goals parking policy Autocentric Avoid parking scarcity Avoid both scarcity and Demand-realistic wasteful surplusConventional Relaxed/ Require (large) buildings to merely Pragmatic contribute to local parking supply Serve wider urban & Multi-objective transport policy goalsParkingmanagement Constraint of car travel Constraint-focused (to certain locations) Ensure demand, supply andMarket-based prices are responsive to each other
  • 30. Lessons• Get adequate control of on-street parking• Foster ‘park-once neighborhoods’ with most parking open to the public, not restricted to customers or tenants only, and with market prices• If you can’t lower or abolish minimum parking requirements, at least don’t increase them Thank you!To download the full study go to http://ssrn.com/abstract=1780012For more on parking policy see http://www.reinventingparking.org/