International Parking Policy Lessons for Bogotá


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Presented at the launch in Bogotá on 4 June 2013 of a new parking guide for Latin America,

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International Parking Policy Lessons for Bogotá

  1. 1. International Parking Policy Lessonsfor Bogotá (especially from Asia)Paul Barter
  2. 2. SummaryThree paradigms of parking policyInternational perspective on keyparking policy choices for BogotáPaul Barter, Reinventing Parking
  3. 3. THREE PARADIGMS OF PARKING POLICYPaul Barter, Reinventing ParkingEvery site shouldhave it ownparkingParking facilitiesserve wholeneighbourhoodsParking is“infrastructure”1. conventionalsuburban2. parkingmanagementParking is a“real-estatebased service”3. market-oriented
  4. 4. THREE PARADIGMS OF PARKING POLICY1. Conventional suburban:Parking is infrastructure(like the toilets in a building)Every site needs enoughparking for its own demandParking minimums key toolThe median USA parking requirementsfor restaurants. Source Seth Goodman Barter, Reinventing Parking
  5. 5. THREE PARADIGMS OF PARKING POLICY‘Conventional suburban’Expects low or zero pricePeople in Adelaide, Australia, are shocked that some Westfieldshopping centres have started to charge for parking(although parking is still free for the first 3 hours)This is where my elementary school once wasPaul Barter, Reinventing Parking
  6. 6. THREE PARADIGMS OF PARKING POLICYConventional suburban:Fears on-street parking chaosand parking conflict (‘spillover’)Assumes parking prices couldnever be high enough toencourage adequate private-sector off-street supplyDhaka, BangladeshPaul Barter, Reinventing Parking
  7. 7. THREE PARADIGMS OF PARKING POLICYConventional approach inSouth and Southeast AsiaOff-street supply can’tmake up for lack of on-street managementChaos on-street evenwhen off-street under-used Barter, Reinventing Parking
  8. 8. THREE PARADIGMS OF PARKING POLICY2. “Parking management”Parking is infrastructure(like streets and bus stops)Mostly planned district bydistrict, not site by sitePaul Barter, Reinventing Parking
  9. 9. THREE PARADIGMS OF PARKING POLICY‘Parking management’Many tools, various goalsManages conflictTools: pricing, restricted eligibility, time-limits, design, sharing, parking taxes, supplyadjustmentsPaul Barter, Reinventing Parking
  10. 10. THREE PARADIGMS OF PARKING POLICYWestern (especially European)inner-city parkingmanagementPublic space improvementsSupply also often restrictedin city center Nyhavn in Copenhagen – before and after 1980Source: Kristian Skovbakke Villadsen, May 2012
  11. 11. THREE PARADIGMS OF PARKING POLICY3. Market-orientedParking is a real-estate basedservice (with market prices, likemeeting rooms)Each parking site serves area(within walking distance)Paul Barter, Reinventing ParkingHong Kong
  12. 12. THREE PARADIGMS OF PARKING POLICYMarket-orientedMake prices responsive- on-street occupancy target- no price caps on off-street parkingMake off-street supplychoices responsive tocontextPaul Barter, Reinventing ParkingSee Seattle, USA
  13. 13. THREE PARADIGMS OF PARKING POLICYDonald Shoup’s market-oriented proposalsi. Price on-street parkingfor 85% occupancyii. Use revenue to pleaselocal stakeholdersiii. Abolish minimumparking requirementsPaul Barter, Reinventing Parking
  14. 14. THREE PARADIGMS OF PARKING POLICYMarket-oriented (de facto)in Japanese citiesand in many city centres world-wideTokyoPaul Barter, Reinventing Parking
  15. 15. THREE PARADIGMS OF PARKING POLICYWhy reject conventionalsuburban approach?‘Fertility drug for cars’Unjust subsidies andcross-subsidiesAuckland,New ZealandPaul Barter, Reinventing ParkingKuala Lumpur,Malaysia
  16. 16. THREE PARADIGMS OF PARKING POLICYWhy reject conventionalsuburban approach?Hinders re-use, redevelopment,infill of older areasHarms housing affordability,especially for small units andsmall sitesObstacle to transit-orienteddevelopmentPaul Barter, Reinventing ParkingNear the center of Houston, USA (via Google Maps)Kuala Lumpur,Malaysia
  17. 17. THREE PARADIGMS OF PARKING POLICYWhy reject conventionalsuburban approach?Locked into automobiledependenceOr pushed towardsautomobile dependencePaul Barter, Reinventing ParkingLos Angeles, USA
  18. 18. THREE PARADIGMS OF PARKING POLICYMarket-oriented:Adaptive ParkingShare! (make most parking sharedor open to the public)Price! (price to prevent queuesand cruising for parking)Sweeten! (make stakeholdershappy)Relax! (about supply)Choice! (improve options andensure competition in parking)For more information see www.reinventingparking.orgPaul Barter, Reinventing Parking
  19. 19. INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVESome important issues relevant to Bogotá– Price controls– On-street parking management– Public parking– Minimum parking requirementsTHEME: MAKE PARKING SYSTEM MORE RESPONSIVEAND LESS RIGIDPaul Barter, Reinventing Parking
  20. 20. INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE:Price controlsMOST cities do NOT controlprivate-sector parking pricesExceptions in China, Vietnam, Indonesia… and BogotáNeedlessly turns private sector parkingprices into a political issueDon’t just raise the price cap: abolish itPaul Barter, Reinventing ParkingBogotá
  21. 21. INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE:Price controlsPrice controls:Eliminate an importantparking management toolInhibit parking investmentFoster unjust cross-subsidyReduce potential taxrevenue from operatorsPaul Barter, Reinventing ParkingBogor, Indonesia
  22. 22. INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE:Price controlsPrice controls:Don’t fear sky-high prices (unless youwant them, in which case you need to restrictparking supply)Operators do NOT want emptyparkingPaul Barter, Reinventing ParkingAmpang Park in Kuala Lumpur’s CBDRM2.00/hour = about US$0.60Bangkok CBD shopping mall.Baht 20 = US$0.65but free parking with receipt
  23. 23. INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE:Public parkingWalkable grids with small blockssuit ‘park-once districts’In which most parking serveswhole neighbourhoodSo suited to parking managementand market-oriented approachesNOT suited to rigid parkingminimums approachesPaul Barter, Reinventing ParkingShared parking, like shared seating, is more efficientAn inner area in Sydney
  24. 24. INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE:Public parkingTaipei and Seoul have incentivesfor parking with buildings to beopen to the publicPaul Barter, Reinventing ParkingTaipeiHong KongEncouragethisDiscouragethis
  25. 25. INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE:Minimum parking requirementsMinimum parking requirements are being abolishedsuccessfully in more and more citiesFor example, the whole of the UK, whole of Berlin,many US and Australian CBDs, several other GermancitiesMost developments still have ample parkingPaul Barter, Reinventing Parking
  26. 26. Floor area threshold below which there are noparking requirementsTokyoYes (1,500 m2 or 2,000 m2). Above the threshold, parkingrequirements phase in gradually according to a formula. Atfull force only from 6,000 m2 floor area.Guangzhou Yes (500 m2)Taipei city Yes (300 m2 or 500 m2)INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE:Minimum parking requirementsJapanese cities have parking minimumsbut with very low ratesand exempting small buildingsPaul Barter, Reinventing Parking
  27. 27. INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE:On-street parking managementExample: Shenzhen, ChinaOn-street parking is free andalmost unmanagedLow occupancy in most off-streetparkingPaul Barter, Reinventing ParkingShenzhen, China
  28. 28. INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE:On-street parking managementAll cities need at least the basicsof on-street managementEssential in both ‘parkingmanagement’ and market-oriented approachesEssential even in conventionalapproach!Paul Barter, Reinventing ParkingJakarta
  29. 29. INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE:On-street parking managementClear rules and build enforcementcapacity (with supporting institutions)Trustworthy time-based fees system(contracts need care)Parking data collection capacitiesPaul Barter, Reinventing ParkingTaipeiPhoto by Flickr user gregwake
  30. 30. INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE:On-street parking managementBest on-street price setting principle:OCCUPANCYOccupancy surveys or monitoringIf >>85% full THEN increase priceIf <<85% full THEN lower priceIf occupancy in “sweet spot”THEN no changePaul Barter, Reinventing ParkingD. Shoup, The High Cost of Free ParkingReduces traffic byreducing cruisingnot reducing tripsComplements otherreforms
  31. 31. SUMMARYThree paradigms of parking policyInternational perspective on keyparking policy choices for Bogotá– Price controls– On-street parking management– Public parking– Minimum parking requirementsPaul Barter, Reinventing Parking