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  1. 2. Sound <ul><li>Is omnidirectional </li></ul><ul><li>Is omnipresent </li></ul>
  2. 3. Sound <ul><li>Quality (timbre) </li></ul><ul><li>Level </li></ul><ul><li>Continuity </li></ul>
  3. 4. Sound <ul><li>Acoustics </li></ul><ul><li>Clap your hands </li></ul><ul><li>Listen </li></ul><ul><li>Background noise </li></ul><ul><li>Wild track </li></ul>
  4. 5. Sound Unlike light - sound dissipates quickly - on a logarithmic scale
  5. 6. Sound Don’t think that you can manipulate poor sound in post production <ul><li>You can’t: </li></ul><ul><li>Remove background noise </li></ul><ul><li>Remove echo/reverb </li></ul><ul><li>Remove distortion (clipping) </li></ul>
  6. 7. Sound <ul><li>But you can : </li></ul><ul><li>Add background noise </li></ul><ul><li>Add echo/reverb </li></ul><ul><li>Add music </li></ul><ul><li>Add foley </li></ul><ul><li>Re-record dialogue </li></ul><ul><li>Add SFX and music </li></ul>
  7. 8. Recee for Audio <ul><li>What can you control? </li></ul><ul><li>What can’t you control? </li></ul><ul><li>Think about space for booms </li></ul><ul><li>Clap your hands </li></ul>
  8. 9. Recording Audio <ul><li>Record as clean and flat as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Always monitor as you record </li></ul><ul><li>Listen out for extraneous noises </li></ul><ul><li>Think about continuity </li></ul><ul><li>Re-shoot if in doubt </li></ul><ul><li>Record wild track </li></ul><ul><li>Check recording </li></ul>
  9. 10. Recording Audio If shooting with two cameras or with a separate audio recorder, always use some form of clapper
  10. 11. Microphones Always think continuity Use the same microphone and placement for shots within the same scene
  11. 12. Microphones The mic on the camera is useless for almost everything except a guide track
  12. 13. Microphones Boom operation is a skilled and very important job
  13. 14. Booms <ul><li>The mic needs to be as close to the source of sound as possible </li></ul><ul><li>The boom should be the same distance from the source in EVERY shot in a scene </li></ul><ul><li>This means that you must plan ahead </li></ul><ul><li>You may need to use two booms </li></ul><ul><li>Boom mics are not as directional as most people think </li></ul>
  14. 15. Boom operator’s job <ul><li>To keep the boom as close as possible to the sound source </li></ul><ul><li>To keep the boom at the same distance for each shot in a scene </li></ul><ul><li>To ensure that the boom does not come into shot </li></ul><ul><li>Be careful not to cause any handling noise </li></ul>
  15. 16. Using Radio Mics <ul><li>Check frequency </li></ul><ul><li>Check audio levels </li></ul><ul><li>Listen for distortion </li></ul><ul><li>Hide the mic but be very careful of handling/clothes noise </li></ul><ul><li>Use one mic on each person - do not share mics </li></ul><ul><li>Radio mics can be placed in scenery </li></ul>
  16. 17. Boundary Mics <ul><li>Can be useful in some situations </li></ul><ul><li>Completely non-directional </li></ul><ul><li>Needs to sit on a flat surface - but beware of footsteps if used on the floor </li></ul><ul><li>Can be easily hidden </li></ul>
  17. 18. Recording sound <ul><li>Sound picked up by mics can be very different to what you hear through you ears </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor everything </li></ul><ul><li>Use good quality headphones </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor LOUD </li></ul><ul><li>Playback everything </li></ul><ul><li>Use the meters </li></ul>
  18. 19. Recording sound <ul><li>Listen before you start </li></ul><ul><li>Clap your hands </li></ul><ul><li>Identify potential problems </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure you understand the shot and the whole scene </li></ul><ul><li>Think about continuity </li></ul><ul><li>Choose microphone(s) </li></ul>
  19. 20. Recording sound <ul><li>Insist on access to the camera </li></ul><ul><li>Check the switching </li></ul><ul><li>Always record two channels </li></ul><ul><li>Stereo can only be recorded using two microphone </li></ul><ul><li>Do not use AGC </li></ul>
  20. 21. Recording sound <ul><li>Don’t forget to record wild track on every location (even if it sounds quiet) </li></ul><ul><li>If there are unavoidable extraneous noises make sure their source is shown </li></ul>
  21. 22. Post-production Sound <ul><li>Keep all sound with video when editing </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t be afraid of using multiple audio tracks </li></ul><ul><li>Keep the most important tracks at the top </li></ul><ul><li>Do not worry too much about levels at first </li></ul><ul><li>If using two cameras use the clapper and time code to sync pictures </li></ul>
  22. 23. Post-production Sound <ul><li>Do not finish sound using the computer speakers in the MMC </li></ul><ul><li>Add SFX and music to cover edits </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure foley and ADR matches original acoustics </li></ul><ul><li>Check audio LOUD in good quality </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure any ADR is on both channels </li></ul><ul><li>Use panning to produce a stereo soundtarck </li></ul>