Language and the brai nmay08 wrap up


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Language and the brai nmay08 wrap up

  1. 1. ELEMENT 2 Analyze the biological and cognitive basis of language
  3. 3.
  4. 4. ASSUMPTIONS It might be that left-handers die younger A left-handed academic from North Dakota has revealed that lefthanders tend to die younger than right-handers : 65 (left-handed), 68 (right-handed), 70 (ambidextrous)
  5. 5. ASSUMPTIONS There is a higher proportion of natural lefthandedness for males than females and this seems to occur everywhere in the world. Between 10-12% of people on earth are “lefties.” Women are more likely to be righthanded than men by about 4 percentage
  6. 6. ASSUMPTIONS The effect of sexual hormones released in the brain during the development of the foetus may be the cause of this phenomenon. At various times in history, left-handedness has been seen as many things: a nasty habit, a mark of the devil, a sign of neurosis, rebellion, criminality, and homosexuality. It has also been seen as a trait indicating creativity and musical abilities.
  7. 7. ASSUMPTIONS Tests conducted by St. Lawrence University in New York found that there were more lefthanded people with IQs over 140 than righthanded people. Famous left-handed intellectuals include Albert Einstein, Isaac Newton, Charles Darwin, and Benjamin Franklin
  8. 8. ASSUMPTIONS According to the Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, the brains of left-handers process emotions differently than those of right-handers and are more susceptible to negative emotions, such as anger. Size is not the crucial factor which would explain human language and non-human lack of language.
  9. 9. External structure of the brain Parietal lobe Frontal lobe Occipital lobe Temporal lobe Cerebellum Brain stem Functions of the lobes Link to 3D image of brain Spinal cord
  10. 10. Internal structure of the brain corpus collosum cerebral cortex thalamus ventricle hypothalamus cerebellum pituitary gland pons midbrain medulla oblongata
  11. 11. cerebral cortex Sensory information such as vision, smell and hearing processed here. Higher cognitive functions. corpus callosum Connects the left and right hemispheres to coordinate information hypothalamus Homeostasis: control of body temperature and osmoregulation. Secretes hormones pituitary gland Produces hormones that control growth, sexual development and metabolism midbrain Involved in control of visual and auditory systems. Also controls body movement cerebellum Fine motor control, posture and balance pons Links the medulla with the thalamus medulla oblongata Controls breathing, heart rate and blood pressure; reflex actions such as vomiting and sneezing
  13. 13. THE BRAIN  Corpus Callosum connects the left hemisphere with the right hemisphere.
  14. 14. HEMISPHERIC DOMINANCE  One hemisphere is the major or controlling one, is called dominance
  15. 15. LATERALIZATION  The separation of structure and function in the hemispheres is technically referred as lateralization  Two halves of the human brain are not alike.  Right-handed persons with lateralization for language in the left hemisphere will perceive more readily speech sounds through the right ear than the left.  “Ba” left ear, and “da” on the right ear  Da passes directly to the language processing centres in the left hemisphere while ba has to travel a longer route  Music and non-linguistic sounds, noises and animal sounds are perceived more strongly in the left ear since they are processed in the right (non-language) hemisphere.
  16. 16. LANGUAGE AREAS Speech Production Speech Comprehension
  17. 17. LANGUAGE AREAS AND FUNCTIONING These two areas are connected by the arcuate fasciculus. When hearing a word: the sound of the word goes from the ear to the auditory area of the temporal lobe and then to Wernicke‟s area. If a heard word is then repeated aloud, the sound must pass to the Broca‟s area
  19. 19. NEURAL PATHWAYS INVOLVED IN THE PROCESSING OF SPOKEN LANGUAGE  Speech Production: generated in the Wernicke‟s area and sent it to Broca‟s area  Reading aloud: the written form is first received by the visual co text then transmitted to the Wernicke‟s area where it is associated with the auditory represenattion and then sent to the Broca`s area • Speech Comprehension: The signal arrive in the auditory cortex from the ear and are transferred to Wernicke‟s area, where they are interpreted.
  20. 20. IS IT LEFT HEMISPHERE THE ONLY ONE IN CHARGE OF LANGUAGE LEARNING?  Although most languages processes occur in Broca‟s area, Wernicke‟s area and angular gyrus, some language functioning does occur elsewhere in the left hemisphere, and some even occurs in the right „non-language‟ hemisphere. (Penfield y Roberts)  The ability to attach and understand intonation, such as the rising tone of a question, the ability to interpret emotional intentions, such as anger or sarcasm from inflections in the voice, and the ability to appreciate social meanings from something such as wispering, may very well be, located outside of what we have traditionally regarded as the main language areas of the brain.
  21. 21. BRAIN MATURATION AND CRITICAL AGE FOR LEARNING LANGUAGE An age beyond which language learning will be difficult or even impossible. There is evidence that damage to language areas in the left hemisphere of very young children are compensated for, with the right hemisphere taking over the reacquisition of language functions. Language then becomes located in the right hemisphere for these individuals. (This sometimes happens with adults )
  22. 22. BRAIN MATURATION AND CRITICAL AGE FOR LEARNING LANGUAGE Lennenberg, who based in his work with aphasic children, set puberty as the age or time in a child‟s life beyond which this kind of recovery would not longer occur. Krashen, found that the age limit of recovery (the right hemisphere taking over damaged left hemisphere functions) is much lower approximately age 5 years.
  23. 23. BRAIN MATURATION AND CRITICAL AGE FOR LEARNING LANGUAGE The age limit of potential language learning in an undamaged left hemisphere might well be beyond the 5-year limit proposed by Krashen on the basis of damaged brains. With regard to a critical age for secondlanguage learning, until 12 years of age and after that age (native-speaker pronunciation) Since other aspects of second language learning do not decline with age.
  24. 24. HOMEWORK Do research about how children acquire language.