./ THE POST-METHODS ERA The history of language teaching has been characterized by the search for the most effective way of teaching second and foreign languages. The commonest solution was the adoption of a new teaching approach or method.
./ THE POST-METHODS ERA What are the differences between an approach and a method?
./ THE POST-METHODS ERADifferences between an approach and a method Approach Method An approach is a set of beliefs and principles that can be used A method refers to a specific instructional design or system as the basis for teaching a language. based on a particular theory of language and of language learning. It contains detailed specifications of content, roles of teachers and learners, and teaching procedures and techniques. Communicative Language Teaching Audiolingualism Competency-Based Language Teaching Counseling-Learning Content-Based Instruction Situational Language Teaching Cooperative Learning The Silent Way Lexical Approaches Suggestopedia Multiple Intelligences Total Physical Response The Neuronal Approach Neurolinguistic Programming Task-Based Language Teaching Whole Language
./ THE POST-METHODS ERADifferences between an approach and a method Approach Method Some approaches have in common a set of theories and Methods solve the problems of novice teachers because many beliefs about the nature of language, of language learning, and of the basic decisions about what and how to teach have a set of principles for teaching a language. already been made for them. They allow a variety of interpretations of how the principles They are learned through training. can be applied. Approaches tend to have a long shelf life. Methods tend to have a relatively short shelf life. They can be revised and updated over time. It is relatively fixed in time and there is generally little scope for individual interpretation. Approaches tend to allow for varying interpretations in Methods prescribe for teachers what and how to teach. practice.
./ THE POST-METHODS ERA By the end of the 20th century, some people spoke of the death of the methods and approaches and the term “post-methods era” was sometimes used. The heyday of the methods has lasted up to the late 1980s
./ THE POST-METHODS ERACriticisimRoles of the teachers and learners Teachers Learners The role of the teacher is marginalized, they have to Learners are sometimes viewed as the passive recipients of understand the method and apply its principles correctly. the method and must submit themselves to its exercises and activities. Teachers sometimes ignore the language program design, the As they bring different learning styles and preferences to the context in which teaching and learning occurs, the cultural learning process they should be consulted in the process of context, the political context, the local institutional context, developing a teaching program. and the teachers and learners class context. There is little room for the teacher’s own personal initiative and teaching style.
./ THE POST-METHODS ERACriticismMethods Roles of the teachers and learners, as well as the type of the activities and teaching techniques to be used in the classroom, are generally prescribed. Teaching methods must be flexible and adaptable to learner’s needs and interests. Many of the methods are full of claims about how people learn languages but few of them are based on second language acquisition research or have been empirically tested. Approaches and methods are not culturally universal. Teachers and teachers in training have to become familiar with the major teaching approaches and methods proposed for second and foreign language teaching. Teachers need to be able to use approaches and methods flexibly and creatively based on their own judgement and experience. Teachers should transform and adapt the methods they use to make them their own. Training in the techniques and procedures of a specific method is essential for novice teachers because it provides them the confidence they will need to face learners.
./ THE POST-METHODS ERACurriculum A ministry or department of education, leading academics and professionals can play an important role in promoting a new approach or method. The changes in the Curriculum may affect teacher’s pedagogical values and beliefs, their understanding of the nature of the language or second language learning, or their classroom practices and uses of teaching materials. The elements in the curriculum have to be carefully analysed and selected to make a correct educational planning.
./ THE POST-METHODS ERA The teacher has to choose different principles at different times, depending on the type of the class. Examples of principles: Engage all learners in the lesson. Make learners, and not the teacher, the focus of the lesson. Provide maximum opportunities for student’s participation. Develop learner responsibility. Be tolerant of learners’ mistakes. Develop learner’s confidence. Teach learners strategies. Respond to learner’s difficulties and build on them. Use a maximum amount of student-to-student activities. Promote cooperation among learners. Practice both accuracy and fluency. Address learner’s needs and interests. All classroom practices reflect teacher’s principles and beliefs.
./ THE POST-METHODS ERAFrom the past to the future The initiatives for changing programs and pedagogy may come from within the profession. Demands of a political, social, or fiscal nature may also drive change, as they have in the past. Some of the factors that have influenced language teaching trends in the past and that can be expected to continue to do so in the future are: Government policy directives. Trends in the profession (professional certification, organizations and lobby groups promoting particular trends or approaches). Guru-led innovations (new school of thought and followers). Responses to technology (technological innovations). Influences from academic disciplines. Research influences. Learner- based innovations. Learners as focus. Crossover educational trends. Crossover from other disciplines.
THE POST-METHODS ERAOur curriculum design is based on the Communicative Language Teaching and The Task-Based Language Teaching approch.Advantages: The Post-method era lets us learn and understand different methods an approaches and also takes from them different elements to build up our own. As a teacher, we have to make our selection and analysis taking into account the needs and interests of the student.Disadvantages: As methods are prescribe, teachers sometimes cannot work freely. Methods and approacehes are not culturally universal so they cannot be applied in any culture. If we want to apply them, we have to take into account the social, cultural,political context.