The Natural Approach
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The Natural Approach

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The Natural Approach The Natural Approach Presentation Transcript

  • *BY STEPHEN KRASHEN AND TRACY TERRELL
  • * Main representatives: Tracy Terrel and Stephen Krashen The Natural aproach is based on the second language acquisition theory developed by Krashen.
  • COMMUNICATI ON as the primary function of language Primacy of MEANING Teaching without reference to grammatical analysis Emphasis on EXPOSURE,or INPUT, rather than on practice Natural Approach Importance of VOCABULARY Use of language in communicative situations without recourse to the native language. Central role of COMPREHENSION View slide
  • *Theory of learning *Acquisition: is the natural way Subconscious process.Meaningful communication. *Learning: conscious process in which conscious rules about the language are developeed. Require language teaching. View slide
  • * The learning system performs the role of the “monitor” or the “editor”. Conscious learning can function only as monitor or editor that checks and repairs the output of the acquired system Three conditions limit the Three conditions limit the successful use of the monitor successful use of the monitor Time Focus on form Knowledge of rules
  • Gramatical estructures are acquired in a predictible order and it does little good to try to learn them in another order.
  • Three kinds of affective or attitudinal were identified: 1.Motivation: learners with high motivation generally do better. 2.Self-confident: learners with selfconfidence and a good self-image tend to be more successful. 3.Anxiety: Low personal anxiety and low classroom anxiety are more conducive to second language acquisition.
  • First point of view: 1. Basic personal communication skills :oral(e.g., listening to announcements in public places) 2. Basic personal communication skills :written(e.g., reading and writing personal letters) 3. Academic learning skills :oral(e.g.. listening to a lecture) 4. Academic learning skills :written(e.g., taking notes in class) Second point of view: The purpose of a language course will vary according to the needs of the students and their interests
  •    Comprehensible input is presented in the target language,  using techniques such as:  Commands-based activities from Total Physical Response,        Direct Method activities in which mime, gestures, and  context are used to elicit questions and answers.  Group work  activities similar to communicative language teaching
  • * Pre-production stage: students participate in the language activity without having repond. * Early-production stage: students repond questions, use single words and short phrases. * Speech-emergent phase: students involve themselves in role plays, games.
  • 1- Provide information  about their specific goals. 2.-Take an active role in ensuring comprehensible input. 3- Decide when to start producing speech and when to upgrade it. 4- Where learning exercises are to be a part of the program.
  • * The primary source of comprehensible input in the target language. * The creator who creates a classroom atmosphere that is interesting, friendly and in which there is a low affective filter for learning. * The organizer who choose and orchestrate a rich mix of classroom activities, involving a variety of group size, content, and contexts
  • * Make classroom activities as meaningful as possible and promote comprehension and communication. * Materials come from the world of realia rather than from textbooks.
  • * A schedule
  • *Brochures
  • * Advertisements
  • * Maps
  • * The Natural Apprach is based on observation an interpretation of how learners acquire both first and second language in non formal settings. * It focus on comprhension and meaningful communication. Silvina Rojo, Ana Cornero 2° year