Main points of TBL Process Communication and meaning Purposeful activities and tasks
Theory of language Language is primarily a means of making meaning Multiple models of language inform TBI: structural, functional and interactional models of language. Lexical units are central in language use and language learning “Conversation” is the central focus of language and the keystone of language acquisition
Theory of learning Tasks provide both the input and output processing necessary for language acquisition Task activity and achievement are motivational Learning difficulty can be negotiated and fine-tuned for particular pedagogical purposes
The syllabus Conventional syllabus Task-based syllabus It specifies the content of a It specifies the task that course: should be carried by – Language structures learners within a program: – Functions – Pedagogical tasks – Topics and themes – Real-world tasks – Macro-skills (reading, writing, listening, speaking) – Competencies – Text types – Vocabulary targets
The syllabus Conventional syllabus Task-based syllabus It specifies learning It is more concerned outcomes. with the process of learning.
Teacher roles Selector and sequencer of tasks Preparing learners for tasks Consciousness-raising
The role of instructional materials Pedagogic Materials: They are limited only by the imagination of the task designer. Realia: TBI proponents favor the use of authentic tasks supported by authentic materials wherever possible.
• Students examine a newspaper, determine its sections, and suggestNewspapers three new sections that might go in the newspaper. • After watching an episode of an unknown soap opera, students list the characters (with know or made-up Television names) and their possible relationship to other characters in the episode. • Seeking to find an inexpensive hotel in Tokyo, students search with three different search engines (e.g., Google, Internet Yahoo), comparing search times and analyzing the first ten hits to determine most useful seach engine for their purpose.
Procedure Jane Willis She teaches at Aston University, UK, on their new modular Masters in TESOL/TESP. Her books include Teaching English Through English (Longman), Challenge and Change in Language Teaching (with Dave Willis, Heinemann), and A Framework for Task-based Learning (Longman).
The language focus • Students are given an opportunity to reflect and analyse the new language which has emerged through the task.Analysis • Students put the language acquired into practice.Practice