Lesson 2-History of Britain Part 2
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Lesson 2-History of Britain Part 2

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Lesson 2-History of Britain Part 2 Lesson 2-History of Britain Part 2 Presentation Transcript

  • Part 2
  • Growth of Capitalism
    • Land market
    • Cloth industry (wool)
    • Enclosure movement
      • Peasants were forced from the land
      • People forced into cities
    • The accumulation of capital and the supply of cheap labor paved the way for the development of capitalism
  • Foreign Trade and the Colonies
    • By the 15 th century, cloth became the bulk of Britain’s trade
    • Needed to find new trading routes
    • John Hawkins (1532-1595)-started slave trade in the second part of the 16 th century
    • Francis Drake (1545-1595)
    • Chartered Companies
      • East India Company
      • Eastland Company (Mediterranean)
      • Moscow Company (Russia and Central Asia)
  • Strengthening of the government
    • Henry VII (1457-1509)
      • 1) Put down revolts
      • 2) Strengthened the law courts
      • 3) Increased the income of the government
    • England was relatively peaceful during this time
  • Reformation
    • Discontent over the Catholic Church in Rome
      • Henry VIII wanted to divorce his wife
      • Asked the Pope for permission but was denied
      • 1534 “Act of Supremacy”- Henry VIII declared head of the English Church
    • Henry VIII took land formerly owned by the church and sold them or gave them to his favorite subjects
    • Struggle between the English Church and Catholicism
  • The English Renaissance
    • Sir Thomas More
    • William Shakespeare
    • John Milton
    • Francis Bacon
  • The Bourgeois Revolution (Background)
    • Capitalist mode of production needs two basic conditions
      • A large number of employed workers and domestic markets
      • A large amount of capital
    • Early 17 th century was a period of class struggle
      • Bourgeoisie and the feudalists
      • Peasants against the enclosure movement
      • Poor people wanted higher wages
  • Civil War
    • James I – insisted on the “Divine Right of Kings”
    • Charles I – conflict between the King and Parliament
      • Tried to arrest members of Parliament
      • Civil war begins January 5 th , 1642
    • Royalists
      • Supported King (feudal nobles)
    • Roundheads
      • Supported Parliament (bourgeoisie, plebes, and peasants)
  • The Commonwealth
    • May 1649 – England declared a “commonwealth”
      • Ireland
      • Scotland
      • 1653 – Cromwell is proclaimed “Lord Protector”
    • Bourgeoisie wanted restoration of monarchy
      • 1660 Charles II proclaimed King of England
    • William and Mary and “The Glorious Revolution”
      • 1689 – The Bill of Rights – limited powers of the crown
  • Britain after the revolution
    • Foreign affairs
      • Britain becomes a stronger sea and colonial power
      • 13 Colonies in America
      • Seven Years (1756-1763) War with France in America and India
      • Treaty of Paris
    • House of Hanover and increasing power of Parliament
    • Economy
  • More Revolutions
    • The American Revolution
      • Treaty of Paris 1783 – Recognizes America’s independence
    • The French Revolution - 1789
      • 1815 – Congress of Vienna
    • The Industrial Revolution
      • James Watt 1769 – The steam engine
      • George Stephenson 1814- Steam locomotive