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Lesson 1-History Of Britain Part 1 (2003)
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Lesson 1-History Of Britain Part 1 (2003)

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  • 1. History of Britain-Part 1
  • 2. Pre-feudal society
    • 3000 B.C. – The Iberians sail around west coast into Scotland and Scandinavia
    • 750 B.C. – Gaels (Celts) –Scottish language and culture
    • 500 B.C. - Britons (Celts)-Welsh culture
      • The Britons drove the Gaels to the north (modern Scotland) ‏
    • 100 B.C. – The third group comes from Gaul
    • The Celts was one of the first civilized cultures in Great Britain with their knowledge of agriculture and trade.
  • 3. The Romans
    • 43 A.D. -410 A.D.
    • Constant revolts
    • 122 A.D. –built Hadrian’s Wall
    • Came to govern and trade, not to settle
  • 4. The Anglo-Saxons
    • Originally invited to defend against the Picts and Scots (Celts) ‏
    • Celts were defeated and pushed into Wales, Scotland and Ireland.
    • 7 kingdoms fought against each other
    • King Alfred united kingdoms against the Danes
    • Christianity helped link the kingdoms together
  • 5. Bead and Beowulf Bede- “Ecclesiastical History of the British People” Beowulf- Considered greatest Old English Poem
  • 6. Danes (the Vikings) ‏
    • Many battles between Danes and Anglo-Saxons during the 9 th and 10 th century A.D.
    • Alfred (Anglo-Saxon King) defeats Guthrum (Dane) and make an agreement
      • Danes allowed to rule the north of England
      • Alfred forced the Danes to accept Christianity
    • Move towards feudalism and class polarization
  • 7. Normans and the rise of feudalism
    • William of Normandy arrived in 1066 to claim the throne
      • The Battle of Hastings
      • Established strong monarchy
    • Feudalism established
    • What is feudalism?
      • King gives land to nobles
      • Nobles must takes oath
      • It is a class system with the king at the top. Nobles are below the king, and peasants or serfs are under the noble.
  • 8. King John and the “The Great Charter”
    • Henry II-increases power of British crown, class struggle
    • 1213 A.D.-More class struggle
    • 1215 A.D. –King John forced to sign the Magna Carta or “The Great Charter”
      • 1. King will not exact extra payments from feudal vassals without their consent
      • 2. Laws not to be modified by the arbitrary action of the king
      • 3. If the king attempts to free himself from the law, vassals (nobles ) have the right to force the king to obey it by civil war
  • 9. Parliament
    • “ All Estates Parliament” (1265) ‏
      • The beginning of Parliament
      • Power of King Henry III is checked
    • “ Model Parliament” (1295) ‏
      • Henry's son, Edward, recognized the need for change
      • Beginning of the “commons” or representation of the middle class
  • 10. Decline of Feudalism
    • The 100 Years War
    • Economic changes
    • The Black Death
    • Rising of 1381
      • The Lollards: against the abuses of the church
      • Poll Tax- started the rising
      • Wat Tyler, led peasants to London
      • Serfs (lowest class) become free peasants or wage laborers
  • 11. The War of the Roses (1455-1485) ‏
    • House of Lancaster and the House of York
      • Feudal war in which the families fight over power, money, and land
      • The two groups fight against each other and essentially destroy each other
      • Weakens the feudal nobility

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