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Lesson 13 Civil Rights

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  • 1. Civil Rights
  • 2. Today’s class
    • Civil Rights Movement (African-Americans)
      • What are Civil Rights? How were they achieved?
      • What problems still exist?
    • Women’s movement
      • Important moments in women’s rights
      • Are women equal in today’s society?
  • 3. What we’ve discussed so far…
    • The beginning of the United States
      • Colonization (Settling the new land)
      • Revolution – Declaration of Independence
      • New government – The Constitution
    • The nation grows
      • Monroe Doctrine – The U.S. gains control in the continent
      • People move west
  • 4. Differences in America
    • The issue of slavery
      • The Northern and Southern economies are very different
        • North – Industry – Large Cities – Paid Labor
        • South – Agriculture – Smaller Cities – Slave Labor
      • Social and political differences lead to the Civil War
        • The North wins
        • The Emancipation Proclamation “frees” the slaves
    • WHAT HAPPENS NEXT?
  • 5. After the Civil War
    • We call the period after the Civil War the Reconstruction Era (p. 84)
      • The government wanted to:
        • Rebuild the political system in the South
        • Rebuild the economy
    • During this early period, many black people were able to participate in the government
  • 6. Reconstruction
  • 7. Reconstruction
    • During this period, the southern states were under military control
      • This was meant to protect the rights of the newly freed African-Americans
    • The U.S. government added 3 changes to the Constitution
      • 13 th Amendment – Ended slavery
      • 14 th Amendment – Citizenship given to blacks
      • 15 th Amendment – Right of blacks to vote (men)
  • 8. Racist Groups
    • Racist groups such as the White League and the Ku Klux Klan were started against blacks
      • Lynching
      • Tar and feathering
    • Whites gained control of southern governments by intimidating black voters
      • The White League as well as the Red Shirts killed many blacks and they were scared to vote
  • 9. Ku Klux Klan
    • A terrorist group against African-Americans
  • 10. Lynching
  • 11. Jim Crow Laws
    • Laws that segregated (separated) blacks and whites
  • 12. Segregation Laws
    • 1896 – Jim Crow Laws were declared legal
      • “ separate but equal”
      • The laws could be used as long as there were facilities for both blacks and whites
        • Examples: restaurants, bathrooms, schools, etc.
  • 13. Jim Crow Laws
    • These laws prevented poor and illiterate people from voting
      • Poll tax – a tax must be paid to vote
        • Kept many poor people from voting
      • Literacy requirements
        • You must be able to read and write to vote
    • These methods were used to keep blacks from voting and helped whites regain control of the state governments
  • 14. Jim Crow Laws
  • 15. Civil Rights Movement
    • 1954 – The Supreme Court rules that segregated schools are unconstitutional
  • 16. p. 123
    • 1957 – Little Rock, Arkansas
      • 9 black students were admitted to an all-white school
      • Whites protested and the military was called in to get the students into the school
      • It was a difficult transition, but most schools were integrated by the mid-1960s
  • 17. The Little Rock Nine
  • 18. Rosa Parks (p. 124)
    • 1955 – Rosa Parks refuses to give up her bus seat to a white man
      • A boycott is lead by Martin Luther King Jr.
      • After a year, the transportation system is desegregated
  • 19. “ I Have a Dream”
    • 1963 – March on Washington
      • Around 300,000 protesters march to the Lincoln Memorial and listen to Martin Luther King’s speech
  • 20. Martin Luther King Jr.
    • Martin Luther King Jr. believed in non-violent protests.
      • “ civil disobedience”
        • An active refusal to obey unfair laws
        • Rosa Parks is a good example
      • Sit-ins – protesters remain in a place until they are forcefully removed
        • Example: blacks used this method in white restaurants
        • They would “sit-in” the restaurant until police made them leave
    • King was an important figure in the Civil Rights movement
      • King was the youngest person to receive the Nobel Peace Prize
      • He was assassinated in 1968 in Memphis, Tennessee
  • 21. Martin Luther King
  • 22. Changes
    • 1964 – The poll tax is ended
    • 1964 – Lyndon B. Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964
      • Prohibits discrimination based on race, color, religion or national origins
    • 1965 – Voting Rights Act made it easier for blacks to vote
    • 1968 – Civil Rights Act of 1968
      • prevents discrimination in the sale, rental and purchasing of housing
  • 23. “ Black Power”
    • A term used during the Civil Rights movement
    • Many worried that this slogan went against King’s ideal of “peaceful protest”
    • During this time there were many riots
      • There was a large riot in Los Angeles in 1992
      • This shows that America is still far from solving it’s problem with racism
  • 24. Los Angeles Riots 1992 (p. 125)
  • 25. Problems
    • The O.J. Simpson trial
      • Showed the complexity of racial problems in the U.S.
    • The election of Barack Obama shows the progress America has made with racial issues
      • Time will tell how far America has come during Obama’s term as President
  • 26. Women’s movement
    • In 1896 blacks were given the right to vote
      • Right was still not given to women
    • In 1920 women were given the right to vote
      • 19 th Amendment to the Constitution
      • Women had pushed for this right after World War I
      • Women held many of the “men’s” jobs while they were at war
        • This helped the suffrage movement greatly
  • 27. Movements in WWI and WWII
  • 28. Women and World War II
    • 16 million American men went to fight
      • 6 million women went to work in the factories
      • Produced military goods
    • A movement was born after women proved they could do the difficult jobs normally done by men
  • 29. First-Wave and Second-Wave Movements
    • First-wave (WWI) – Right to vote
    • Second-wave – Focused on equality with men
      • Wanted changes in divorce laws
      • Wanted equal pay
      • Freedom in decisions about pregnancy
        • Right to abortion
        • Contraceptives (the pill)
  • 30. Important Events
    • 1960 – Birth control pills approved (safe)
    • 1963 – Equal pay act
      • Equal pay for equal work
      • The pay is not yet equal, but has risen greatly
    • 1965 – Affirmative Action
      • No discrimination based on race, gender or religion for government jobs
    • 1969 – First “no-fault” divorce law in California
      • Women begin to gain more rights in marriage and divorce
    • 1973 – Roe vs. Wade
      • Supreme Court case which made abortion legal
  • 31. Women’s Rights
    • We’ve discussed some important events in the Women’s Movement
    • While many issues still exist, we have seen a lot of progress from these movements
    • Examples
      • In the beginning of the 20 th century only 20% of degrees were earned by women
        • Now it is close to 50%
      • In the beginning of the 20 th century only 5% of doctors were women
        • Now it is almost 38%