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Manipulating Media Project 4 - PATT
 

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    Manipulating Media Project 4 - PATT Manipulating Media Project 4 - PATT Document Transcript

    • Formatted: Left: 2.54 cm, Right: 2.54 cm Save the Essay Group Name – PATT Patrick McClellan – Project Manager Amy Martin – Researcher Tae Inui – Content CreatorTom Bannister – Presentation & Design 0
    • Formatted: Font: Arial, 13 ptUsing two examples from the genre of horror examine what a „classic Formatted: Left, Line spacing: singlehorror‟ film is. Formatted: Line spacing: DoubleThe horror genre is one of the most popular genres and we may sayit can be said Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Formatted: Justified, Line spacing:that it has started to develop practically immediately with the development of show Double Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptbusiness and a free access of wide audience to cinemas and television. We canfindThere are a lot of causesreasons of the popularity of this genre but it is still not Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptso easy to explain its phenomenon, namelysuch as why it is so attractive for Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptpeople despite all its unreality. However, itIt would be a great mistake to saydefine Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptthat horror moviesfilms areas plain or even primitive. NaturallyIn fact, there are Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptsome moviesfilms which are really so stereotyped, unbearably plain, and Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptabsolutely thoughtless. But in my opinionHowever, it is simplythey are just Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptexclusions or films that wereare created by specialists who are far from real Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptmoviemakingfilmmaking, and theywho can create nothing but films of low quality Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptregardless of its genre. Also I‟d sayIn addition, it can be said that as any other Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptbranch of art cinemafilm has its genius and its mediocre majority because good Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptfilms may be created only by a good crew and the genre is not so important. Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptAmong such genius of cinema I would name theThe crews that worked on two Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pthorror films of horror genre, theywhich are “Invasion of Body Snatchers” and “The Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptThing” are the examples of such genius films. I saidIt was mentioned previously Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt, Italic Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptthat crews were important, but it was not saying that not because I do not want to Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt, Italic Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptagree with those who believe that Donald Siegel and John Carpenter were not Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptoutstanding directors., oOn the contrary I am gladit was saying that the fact that Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptpeople who worked on these two films were led by such well-qualified Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt 1
    • Formatted ... Formatted ... Formatted ...professionals was an advantage for the two films. SoTherefore, we may say that Formatted ... Formatted ...“Invasion of the Body Snatchers” and “The Thing” are classics of the horror Formatted ... Comment [T1]: This was too long.genrefilms and the best ones. But what I would like toThis essay will analyzse is Formatted ... Formatted ...the reason why they are treated as suchclassic and in which way they are similar Formatted ...or different.by considering the similarities and differences between them. And then, Formatted ... Formatted ...it will find out what factors make a classic horror film. Formatted ... Formatted ... Formatted ...First of allBefore starting analysing the two films, it is necessary to say that these Formatted ...two films were created at different times. “Invasion of the Body Snatchers” was Formatted ... Formatted ...created in the mid-dle 11950s, more precisely in 1956, whereas The Thing was Formatted ... Formatted ...created in 1982. It seems that such time difference should makes the films Formatted ... Formatted ...completely different but, strangely enough, they have a lot of common aspects. Formatted ...That is why at the beginning I would like to dwell uponthis essay will firstly Formatted ... Formatted ...consider the similarities of both filmsbetween them. First of all, we may say that, Formatted ... Formatted ...to a certain extent, the themes isare close. Both films focus on the problem of the Formatted ...invasion of human or just alive bodies by some aliens that tends to control such Formatted ... Formatted ...as the personalitiesy, the hosts‟ actions, and the judgments, etc. In the case of Formatted ... Formatted ...“Invasion of the Body Snatchers”, LeGacey shows how wepeople deal with an Formatted ... Formatted ...alien kind that:with creatures that: Formatted ... Formatted ... Formatted ... Formatted ... Formatted ... “has to wait for the perfect moment when the target is asleep), and spend Formatted ... the next few hours consuming and taking on that form. If the host wakehost Formatted ... Formatted ... wakes up when the process is not complete, the whole procedure is a Formatted ... Formatted ... failure.” (LeGacey, 1978, :p.288). Formatted ... 2
    • On the other hand, „the thing‟The Thing needs just a few minutes to do it because Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt“it can assimilate the host while its still conscious, against the host‟s will” (Landon, Formatted: Line spacing: Double Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt1993, p:39). Probably suchThose changes are caused by the changes of time or Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptepoch. It is obvious that theThe rhythm of life in 1980s was much faster than in Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt1950s,. certainly it found itsIt can be seen in the expression in the perception of Comment [T2]: Nothing can be obvious in academic works.the idea of possible alien assault or attempts to invade human minds. Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptBy the way, I think that bothBoth films express the trend that took place in the Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Comment [T3]: The paragraphsociety when the idea of total control of a human mind became more and more which starts from here is too long. It would be better separated intowidely spread. It means that symbolically by aliens creators of the films tried to four paragraphs. Formatted: Line spacing: Doubleimply those powers either political or economical that by different means aimed at Formatted: Font: 12 pt Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptthe total control of public conscious through the invasion of the mind of a separate Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptindividual. It wasis quite actual if we take into account if we take into considerationthe time when both films were released, is taken into consideration. 1952 it wasthe year of the beginning of the cold war when the tension between the well-developed democratic world and the communistic Soviet Union grew. and theThegovernments of many countries, including the most democratic, had started tostruggle forwith the control of public opinion and even each particular individual. Comment [T4]: The sentence was too long, so it was divided into three sentences.At the same time, 1982 it was a period when the cold war achieved its apologue Formatted: Font: 12 ptand the world was on the eve of the ReagansReagan‟s declaration of the war on Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptthe „empire of evil‟ when the situation was very resembling to that of early 1950s. Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptFurthermore, the degree of surveillance grew and specialists began tospokespeak about the total control of certain organizsations over people. In such Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt 3
    • a situation, the people transformed in pods in the horror films I‟ve just named look Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Formatted: Justified, Line spacing:like a prophecy and warning against such dangerous practice. Double Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt, Italic Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt, ItalicAs for some more similarities of both “Invasion of the Body Snatchers” Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Comment [T5]: Better to be „notand “The Thing”, we may find not only theme and probably idea of the only theme or idea of the film but also the atmosphere of films can be considered as the similarities.‟film but also the atmosphere of films. Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Comment [T6]: Better to be „mentioned previously...‟As I have already said these films deals with the alien intrusion into human life, Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Comment [T7]: Should be changedinto human body, mind and consciousness. These films also may serve as a into „this‟ instead of „it‟. Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptwarning about the danger of such a situation, of a total control of human Comment [T8]: Should be changed into „the audience‟.consciousness when people become pods but not thinking beings. Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Comment [T9]: Would better be „Therefore, it can be said...‟It is reinforced by the reigning atmosphere of tension, even paranoia Comment [T10]: This was moved from below to here. (Refer [T32])that makes us forget about the unreality of the events and deep into the Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptaction. It is obvious that creators of these films had similar aims. Formatted: Font: 12 pt Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Comment [T11]: Better to be „There is one more similarity that needs to be mentioned, which is...‟ Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptFinally, I would like to add a few words about the way of alien invasion. Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Comment [T12]: Change to „That is to say, the...‟It may be a bit different by its form but the principle of such invasion remains Formatted: Line spacing: Double Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptsimilar. Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt, Italic Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Comment [T13]: Should end hereWhat I mean is the fact that certainly aliens in “Invasion of the Body Snatchers” Comment [T14]: „As above.and “The Thing” act differently, I have already mentioned that the latter act rapidly Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt, Italic Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt 4
    • without human will and they can act in any time while the former are quite long Comment [T15]: „and‟ before „they‟ Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptreacted beings, they cannot attack men only if they are not asleep. Comment [T16]: Better be „However, the audience can...‟ Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Formatted: Justified, Line spacing: DoubleBut we see that there is one common principle aliens in these this films attack Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Comment [T17]: „That is,‟ insteadfrom inside, I mean they want invade human bodies and minds but not their land, Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Comment [T18]: „human‟s‟ insteadproperty, they do not threat directly to their physical wealth. It seems that human Comment [T19]: Remove this.inner world is much more important for them than anything else because they try Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptto control human‟s memory, and consequently our feelings, emotions, our state of Comment [T20]: „the‟ instead of ourmind, perception of the world, our present and our past, as. Moreover, “the Thing Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptis smarter than graden-variety humans” (Biskind, 1983, p.134). they “have access Comment [A21]: Don‟t know where this quote is from so have replacedto the being‟s memories, allowing them to blend in almost perfectly without being it with another from Baskind. Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptdetected by future target hosts who may know the person who has now been Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt, Notreplaced by these horrible alien creatures”i. Thus, we seeit can be said that unlike Superscript/ Subscript Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt, Italic,many other films about alien invasion “Invasion of the Body Snatchers” and “The Not Superscript/ Subscript Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt, NotThing” pay much more attention to the inner world of people,. They implying the Superscript/ Subscript Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt, Italic,spiritual emptiness that threatens to the people of the 20th century because in my Not Superscript/ Subscript Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt, Notopinion the aliens symbolizse all those complicated processes that took place in Superscript/ Subscript Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt, Notourthe society in the 20th century. andThey still continuescontinue to exist and Superscript/ Subscript Comment [T22]: This was too long.that lead to moral degradation of people to their transformation into pods. Comment [T23]: This was moved from below to here. (Refer [T32]) Formatted: Font: 12 pt Formatted: Font: (Default) Arial, 12 pt, (Asian) Japanese Formatted: Line spacing: DoubleThese are the key points that make the two films similar. However, there are also Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Comment [T24]: Not needed.differences between them. One more thing One of the key elements that makes Formatted: Font: 12 pt Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt 5
    • “Invasion of the Body Snatchers” and “The Thing” quite different is the degree of Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt, Italic Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptcombination of reality and unreality as I would call it. In my opinion, at this point Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt, Italic Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt“The Thing” is much more radical thing in the sense thatbecause the filmit is full of Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt, Italicfantastic elements and the state of paranoia overwhelms audience and keeps Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptpeoplethem in such a state during the whole film. On the other hand, in “Invasion Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptof the Body Snatchers” it is quite difficult to distinguish whether what wethe Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt, Italic Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptaudience sees is real or unreal. Personally, when I watched both films I had a Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptpermanent doubt in the mental health of its main characters it was quite difficult to Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Comment [TB25]: This section wassay whether it was something really unusual, extraordinary things that happen to in a different font to the rest of the essay. Inconsistent.people in the city or it was a simple hallucination, illusion, or just a nightmare and Formatted: Font: 12 pt Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptonly at the end it becomes clear that the whole city was really transformed in podspeople. WhereasHowever in “The Thiang” it is evident practically from the very Comment [T26]: Any personal opinions must not include in the academic essays, so this partbeginning. Everyone realizses that the characters act in an unreal situation, such would better be cut off. Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptas they really confront some aliens that intend to control their bodies and their Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptminds. Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt, Italic Formatted: Font: 12 pt, Italic Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt, Italic Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptProbably, theThe cause of such athis difference lies in the history of the origin of Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptthe films. For we know that “Invasion of the Body Snatchers” was significantly Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt, Italicinfluenced by proceeding films noir that tended to externalisedexternalized the Formatted: Font: 12 pt, Italic Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt, Italicmoral conflict of the detective story. According to Biskind,Ssuch films inhabitare Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptset in: Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt 6
    • “shadow worlds and hover without resolve between the supernatural and Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Formatted: Indent: Left: 1.27 cm, mundane rationalism. In the same sense “Invasion of the Body Snatchers” Line spacing: Double Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt, Italic and the other alien takeover films… psychologically Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt externalisedexternalized the central conflict of the alien invader film – they Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt were less films about aliens than they were about alienation” ii (Biskindg Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt, Not Superscript/ Subscript 1983, PP.p139). Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt, Not Superscript/ Subscript Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt, Not Superscript/ Subscript Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt, Not Superscript/ SubscriptHowever the director, Donald Siegel, triesd to keep usthe audience in suspense Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt, Not Superscript/ Subscript Formatted: Line spacing: Doublefor a while and inrushesd the film with rationalism and realism but when the Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt, Not Superscript/ Subscriptnightmare becomesbecame the realityreal he widely usesd film noir techniques Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt, Not Superscript/ Subscriptsuch as shots down tight corridors, silhouettes running against streetlights, close Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt, Not Superscript/ Subscriptups on sweaty faces, and tilted angles. ThoughEven though he introduced some Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt, Not Superscript/ Subscriptfilm noir techniques he doesdid not forget about including classical horror films Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt, Not Superscript/ Subscriptscenes, which is suggested by Biskind when he writes: such as “ Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt, Not Superscript/ Subscript Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt, Not shots up from under the plank under which McCarthy and Winter hide, with Superscript/ Subscript Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt, Not the pod people crossing calmly assuring them there is nothing to fear, the Superscript/ Subscript Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt, Not wide-angled shots out of the office window down onto the public square, Superscript/ Subscript Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt, Not which becomes inexplicably frightening the moment all visitors are cleared Superscript/ Subscript Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt, Not and the bustle of everyday chaos suddenly turns into something ordered Superscript/ Subscript Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt, Not and people start organizing the pods to be distributed about the country” Superscript/ Subscript Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt, Not (BaskinBiskind, 1983, :p.141). Superscript/ Subscript Formatted ... Formatted ... Formatted ... Formatted ... 7
    • WhereasHowever, in “The Thing” its creators used the experience of past works Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt, Not Superscript/ Subscriptin the field of horror films. and I would sayIn addition, it can be said that this film is Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt, Not Superscript/ Subscriptpurer horror in the sense that the psychological tension here is weakened by a Formatted: Line spacing: Double Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt, Italic,certain simplification. That is, due to which we the audience should not guess Not Superscript/ Subscriptwhether it is a kind of psychological problems of the characters or a paranormalphenomenon for the latter because it is quite obvious easy to find out. Comment [T27]: The sentence was too long, so it was divided into three sentences. Formatted: Font: 12 pt Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Formatted: Line spacing: DoubleAlsoIn addition, I want to add that “The Thing” iscontains much richermore in Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt, Italicspecial effects, particularly when we see victims of aliens who “transform into Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pttwisted versions of themselves, complete with claws, spider-like limbs, teeth and Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptlots of flailing tentacles” (Landon 1993, p.:36). And again I think that isThis is also Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptthe result of time changes because in 1980s due to the development of computertechnologies and more sophisticated technical equipment impressiveand special Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pteffects became an essential part of any good horror films pretending to be Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptinteresting and popular. Whereas, in 1950s, not only technical opportunities werenot so good but the tradition of film shooting was a bit different. More more Comment [T28]: This sentence was moved to the bottom of the paragraph with some changes.attention was usually given to psychological side and could only be enforced by Formatted: Font: 12 ptspecial effects which were not very „special‟ though in comparison with 1980s. It Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptwas not only because there were not many technical opportunities, but alsobecause the tradition of film shooting was slightly different.As for some more similarities of both “Invasion of the Body Snatchers” Formatted: Justified, Line spacing: Doubleand “The Thing”, we may find not only theme and probably idea of thefilm but also the atmosphere of films. 8
    • As I have already said these films deals with the alien intrusion into human life,into human body, mind and consciousness. These films also may serve as awarning about the danger of such a situation, of a total control of humanconsciousness when people become pods but not thinking beings.It is reinforced by the reigning atmosphere of tension, even paranoiathat makes us forget about the unreality of the events and deep into theaction. It is obvious that creators of these films had similar aims. Comment [T29]: This is about a similarity between the two films, so it should be written right after the other similarities. Therefore, it wasFinally, I would like to add a few words about the way of alien invasion. moved forward. And also, these three paragraphs should be in one paragraph. Formatted: Font: 12 ptIt may be a bit different by its form but the principle of such invasion remains Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptsimilar.What I mean is the fact that certainly aliens in “Invasion of theBody Snatchers” and “The Thing” act differently, I have alreadymentioned that the latter act rapidly without human will and theycan act in any time while the former are quite long reacted beings,they cannot attack men only if they are not asleep.But we see that there is one common principle aliens in these this films attackfrom inside, I mean they want invade human bodies and minds but not their land,property, they do not threat directly to their physical wealth. It seems that humaninner world is much more important for them than anything else because they tryto control human‟s memory, and consequently our feelings, emotions, our state ofmind, perception of the world, our present and our past. Moreover, they “haveaccess to the being‟s memories, allowing them to blend in almost perfectly without 9
    • being detected by future target hosts who may know the person who has nowbeen Comment [T30]: There is no need to divide here.replaced by these horrible alien creatures”iii. Thus, we see that unlike many other Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptfilms about alien invasion “Invasion of the Body Snatchers” and “The Thing” pay Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt, Not Superscript/ Subscriptmuch more attention to the inner world of people, implying the spiritual emptiness Comment [T31]: This is about a similarity between the two films, so it should be written right after thethat threatens to the people of the 20th century because in my opinion the aliens other similarities. Therefore, it was moved forward. And also, thesesymbolize all those complicated processes that took place in our society in the five paragraph should be in one paragraph.20th century and still continues to exist and that lead to moral degradation of Formatted: Font: 12 pt Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptpeople to their transformation into pods. Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt, ItalicIn conclusion, Taking all mentioned above into account all above mentioned, I can Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptcome to the conclusion that “Invasion of the Body Snatchers” and “The Thing” are Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt, Italic Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptreal masterpieces of the horror genre. and we haveThis can be perceived them Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptnot only in the proper sense but also by realising we should also realize what the Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptcreators of these films implied. In my paper I have namedThis essay considered a Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptlot of things that are eitherboth similarities orand differentces inbetween these two Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptfilms, but what is the most important is the fact that they both were and remain Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptextremely popular and the film that would be better than them can be hardly Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptimagined. One of the evidences of my idea is the fact thatThis is because there Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptare numerous remakes of these films that, in its turn, tells usthe audience about Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptthe actuality of the plot, themes and ideas conveyed with the help ofin “Invasion of Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt, Italicthe Body Snatchers” and “The Thing”. Thus, I can sayit can be said that both films Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptshould be regarded as classic of horror genrefilms and their traditions should be Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt, Italic Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt 10
    • continued but not blindly copied because that would lead to the development and Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptprosperous future of this genre. Formatted: Line spacing: Double 11
    • Bibliography: Reference: Comment [A32]: The bibliography needed more structure with sections for books, journals and a Filmography. Each section inBooks: alphabetical order. Comment [T33]: ReferencesBiskind, P.,eter. (1983) “The Mind Managers: Invasion of the Body Snatchers and should be listed on a new page. Formatted: Font: 12 pt, Underlinethe Paranoid Style in American Movies.” In Seeing Is Believing: How Hollyiwood Formatted: Font: 12 pt, Underline Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptTaught UsS to Stop Worrying and Love the Fifties.Movies. New York: Pantheon Formatted: Font: 12 pt Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptBooks, 1983. Formatted: Font: 12 pt, Underline Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptLandon, B., (1993) The Aesthetic of Ambivalence: Rethinking the Science Fiction Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptFilm in the Age of Electronic (Re) production. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt, Italic Formatted: Font: 12 pt, Italic Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt, ItalicBiskin, Peter. “The Russians Are Coming, Aren‟t They? Them! The Thing, and the Formatted: Font: 12 pt, Italic Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt, ItalicExtremists from Beyond the Center.” In Seeing Is Believing: How Holliwood Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt, Italic Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptTaught US to Stop Worrying and Love Movies. Pantheon; NY:, 1983. Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Formatted: Font: 12 pt, ItalicJournals: Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Comment [A34]: Isn‟t necessary toGregory, C.T.harles. (1972) The pod society vs. the rugged individualists. The list the same book twice. Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptjournal of popular film and television, 1, 3-14 “The Pod Society Versus the Formatted: Font: 12 pt, Underline Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptRugged Individualists.” The Journal of Popular Film 1. Winter 1972. Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptLandon, B. „The Thing in All Its Guises: Reconsidering a Science Fiction Classic.‟Chapter 2 of The Aesthetic of Ambivalence: Rethinking the Science Fiction Film inthe Age of Electronic (Re)production. Greenwood Press Westport, CT:, 1993. Comment [A35]: Moved into the book section of the bibliography. Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt 12
    • LeGacy, Arthur. (1978) Invasion of the Body Snatchers: A metaphor for the fifties. Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptLiterature/Film Quarterly, 6.3, 285-292“Invasion of the Body Snatchers: A Metaphor for the Fifties.” Literature/Film Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 ptQuarterly 6.2, 1978. Comment [A36]: This was not referenced correctly according to the Harvard system.Filmography: Comment [A37]: Films also need to be referenced at the end in a Filmography, not just as they are mentioned in the text.Invasion of the Body Snatchers (1956) Film. Directed by Don Siegel USA: Allied Formatted: Font: 12 pt, Underline Formatted: Font: 12 pt, UnderlineArtists Pictures/Walter Wanger Productions. Formatted: Justified, Right: 0 cm, Space Before: 0 pt, After: 6 pt, Line spacing: Double Formatted: Font: (Default) Arial, 12 pt, English (U.K.)The Thing (1982) Film. Directed by John Carpenter UK: Universal Pictures/TurmanFoster Company.i Gregory, Charles. “The Pod Society Versus the Rugged Individualists.” The Journal of Popular Film1. Winter 1972.ii Bisking 1983 PP.139iii Gregory, Charles. “The Pod Society Versus the Rugged Individualists.” The Journal of PopularFilm 1. Winter 1972. 13