Peggy A. Ertmer and Anne T. Ottenbreit-Leftwich Presented by Patricia Wise
The presentation Introduce the concept of the paper Look at the key factors What is need to create change Discussion questions Conclusion Share responses online
A thought to begin “Despite increases in computer access and technology training, technology is not being used to support the kinds of instruction believed to be most powerful.” (Ertmer & Ottenbreit-Leftwich, 2010 pg 255)
Change is needed Teachers’ mindsets must change to include the idea that “teaching is not effective without the appropriate use of information and communication technologies (ICT) resources to facilitate student learning.” Ertmer & Ottenbreit-Leftwich, 2010 p.255
The focus of this paper Looking at the teacher as an agent of change Characteristics, qualities and factors involved in fostering change A focus on four key variables Knowledge Self efficacy Pedagogical beliefs School culture
knowledge Knowledge of the technology itself (technological literacy). The need to combine this knowledge with pedagogy and content knowledge. (TPACK) How to use it, how to teach others how to use it, how to integrate it with content and pedagogy. That all sounds pretty straight forward but…………….
knowledge Fear of the unknown and change. Learning about technology is like asking teachers to hit a moving target Ertmer & Ottenbreit-Leftwich, 2010 p. 260 Technology is always changing, so knowledge and skills are only part of the picture.
Self - Efficacy Self-efficacy is the belief that you can do something, it is confidence in your ability It’s your ‘I CAN’ How would you rate your confidence with the use of ICTs in the classroom?
Self - Efficacy Confidence may be more important than skills and knowledge. If you are not confident using technology you will be reluctant to do so. How do teachers gain confidence? Through gaining personal experiences of success And also witnessing other peoples successful experiences. They need to be positive experiences, ones that work and get results.
Pedagogical Beliefs When we interact with new learning we filter information through our beliefs. We all have beliefs, as teacher we have beliefs about how students learn best. We also have beliefs about how ICTs fit into our teaching and how valuable they are, or are not. Changing beliefs about pedagogy is not easy.
Pedagogical Beliefs Teachers pedagogical beliefs towards technology are based on whether or not they think technology can help them achieve the instructional goals they perceive to be most important. Watson, 2006, cited in Ertmer & Ottenbreit- Leftwich, 2010 p.263 So professional development needs to show teachers the connection between ICTs and learning outcomes preferably in relation to specific grades and content.
Pedagogical Beliefs Teachers need concrete examples of how to use ITCs to promote student centred learning. It has been found that when teachers witnessed the impact of technology on their students’ learning they were motivated to experiment with additional technologies in their teaching.” (Ertmer & Ottenbreit-Leftwich, 2010 p.277)
culture When we talk about culture we refer to school culture. Many school cultures appear to not place high value on innovative use of technology. “research indicates that innovative teachers are easily overpowered by pressures to conform.” Pontocell, 2003; Roehrig et al., 2007 cited in Ertmer & Ottenbreit-Leftwich, 2010 p.264
culture Technology innovation was less likely to be adopted if it deviated too greatly from the existing values, beliefs, and practices of the teachers and administrator in the school. The opposite of this may also be true
culture School leadership is key The school culture should support teachers to experiment with the use of ICTs A shared vision and goal setting is important. This can come from leadership and teachers working together. Working teams can be set up to develop specific ICT implementation, these teams can be grade/content specific. Sharing knowledge, and ideas about what works.
Discussion questions When considering Knowledge, Self-efficacy and pedagogical beliefs what areas do you recognise as needing attention for yourself as a teacher using ICTs? Culture and our peers influence our own teaching practice with ICTs. Do you believe that this is true, do you have any examples or strategies to reduce negative influences if they occur? What does the below statement mean to you, is there a criteria for what “appropriate” is? “teaching is not effective without the appropriate use of information and communication technologies (ICT) resources to facilitate student learning.”
conclusions This paper focused on the teacher as agent of change. It allows us to identify four key areas of influence involved in utilising ICTs in the classroom. From this a teacher may ask Do I have the level of knowledge and awareness about ITCs that I require? How is my level of self-efficacy and confidence when using and teaching with ICTs? What are my beliefs about ICTs and pedagogy? How is my school environment and culture effecting my use of ICTs? By answering the above questions a teacher can identify factors that they can influence, change and develop to assist them in the appropriate use of ICT resources to achieve student learning outcomes.
If we have time Please now take some time to add you thoughts and comments online.
references Ertmer, P., & Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A. (2010). Teacher technology change: How Knowledge, confidence, beliefs, and culture intersect. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 42 (3), 255-284.