Consciousness, physics and computer science

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Consciousness, Physics and Computer Science

Consciousness, Physics and Computer Science

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  • 1. Consciousness? Consciousness, Physics, and Computer Science Richard Shoup Boundary Institute Los Altos, California, USA i.e. Self-awareness shoup@boundary.orgShoup – SSE ‘07 Copyright © 2007 - All Rights Reserved Shoup – SSE ‘07 Key Elements of Consciousness Tangled Concepts • Consciousness• Self / Identity: “How do you explain my experience, my internal states, my feelings, my rich inner life, etc?” • Measurement => Instead, one should be asking “Who is the I?” • Entanglement• Conscious phenomena: • Randomness emotion, modeling, learning, creativity, Psi, etc • Causality, 2nd Law• Free Will: Non-determinism, freedom of personal choice • Psi, anomalies => Randomness, causeless events? • Free Will, determinism • Gödel theorems • Artificial Intelligence “Tangle”, Martina NehrlingShoup – SSE ‘07 Shoup – SSE ‘07 1
  • 2. Leaps of Consciousness - Pitfalls Consciousness?• Internal experiences (feelings, qualia) are so inexplicable that quantum states are required in the brain.• Conscious is necessary and essential to quantum measurement.• Conscious phenomena violate physical principles, especially cause-and-effect.• Godel’s theorems imply that the mind cannot be a computer.• Godel’s theorems imply there are some things we cannot know. i.e. Self-awareness “... take experience itself as a fundamental feature of the world, alongside mass, charge, and space-time." ”– David Chalmers => recursion? Shoup – SSE ‘07 Shoup – SSE ‘07 System with Feedback Quantum Theory Unitary evolution (U) (Schrödinger equation) System linear, unitary, conservative, reversible, deterministic Measurement (R) (“collapse” of the wavefunction) non-linear, non-unitary, non- conservative, non-reversible, random, unpredictable Self-aware? Shoup – SSE ‘07 Shoup – SSE ‘07 2
  • 3. Measurement Interaction Quantum Measurement A B SA = SB = SC = 1 0 -1 1 1 0 -1 HA = HB = 1 System Observer SA:B = … = 1 0 HA|B = HB|A = 0 1 1 SA|BC = … = -1 HA:B = 1 Environment SA:B:C = 0 HAB = 1 -1 SABC = 0 C after Cerf & Adami, 1996Shoup – SSE ‘07 Shoup – SSE ‘07 REG/RNG: Is Nature Probabilistic? Uninfluenceable, Unpredictable “[QM] yields much, but it hardly brings us closer to the Old Ones secrets. I, in any case, am convinced that He does not play dice.” – A. Einstein, letter to Max Born, 1924 RNG “Not only does God definitely play dice, but - No inputs He sometimes confuses us by throwing them - No memory where they cant be seen.” Tests: Diehard, NIST, Comscire, etc. – S. Hawking, 1995Shoup – SSE ‘07 Shoup – SSE ‘07 3
  • 4. Conscious Influence? Simple Experiment Past Present Future Jahn & Dunne, JSE, Vol 19, No 2, 2005Shoup – SSE ‘07 PEAR: www.princeton.edu/~pear Shoup – SSE ‘07 Summary Gödel’s Theorems• All quantum evolution is unitary; no collapse This sentence is false.• Cause-and-effect => bidirectional relations, time symmetry• Correlations in the present due to interactions in the future• Some Psi phenomena are explained This statement is not provable (in S).• No need or evidence for quantum phenomena in the brain Either S is incomplete or inconsistent. “That is not to suggest that we understand how brains compute. But so far, there seems to be no need for quantum skyhooks.” -- Christof Koch and Klaus Hepp in Nature “Any paradox will do.” -- Gödel to Gregory ChaitinShoup – SSE ‘07 Shoup – SSE ‘07 4
  • 5. Gödel Implications? Self-Reference, Feedback, and Paradox“Gödels message is that mankind will never know the final secret of the universe by finitistic or constructivistic thought alone.” -- Casti (1991)“For what [Gödel] appears to have shown is that no such system of rules can ever be sufficient to prove even those Negative feedback propositions of arithmetic whose truth is accessible, in principle, to human intuition and insight – whence human “All Cretans are liars.” -- Epimenides the Cretan intuition and insight cannot be reduced to any set of “This sentence is False.” -- anonymous “The set of all sets not containing themselves.” -- Bertrand Russell rules.” – Roger Penrose, Shadows of the Mind “This statement is unprovable.” -- Kurt Gödel “This program does not halt.” -- Alan TuringShoup – SSE ‘07 Shoup – SSE ‘07 Classical Self-Reference (Feedback) Imaginary Numbers & Logic Values Numbers Logic • Mechanical systems • Control Theory x = -1/x (x2 = -1) x = ~x • Systems Theory • Cybernetics • etc … x = ±√-1 = i or -i x = i or j Negative feedback is commonly used in engineering, 1, -1, i, -i • F, T, i, j ⊗ … but paradox has been forbidden in Logic and Set Theory G. Spencer-Brown, Laws of Form, 1969Shoup – SSE ‘07 Shoup – SSE ‘07 5
  • 6. Self-Reference in Circuits System with Complex Self-Reference • > 1010 neurons • > 1000 fan-in/out • self-reference at all levels • cell assemblies etc (Hebb)Shoup – SSE ‘07 Shoup – SSE ‘07 Local Self-Reference Summary • Paradoxes are useful, and should be fully integrated. • Analogy: imaginary logic values imaginary numbers • Self-reference is central to understanding consciousness. • The brain produces the Self from complex self-reference. 16-Sierpinski – local fractalShoup – SSE ‘07 Shoup – SSE ‘07 6
  • 7. Some Consciousness-Related Phenomena are Interesting Progress of Science – I • Deeper, simpler principles • Psi, including psychometry – Pantheon of gods, myriad of rules • Hauntings, ghosts – Gravity => Accelerated motion • Metal bending – Atomic theory => Standard Model • Intentional healing – Relativity, Matter <=> Energy • Apparent reincarnation – ... • Communication with deceased – U & R processes => U (no “collapse”) • Near-death & out-of-body experiences – String Theory, Quantum Gravity – ... • ... – Distinctions (Laws of Form) Shoup – SSE ‘07 Shoup – SSE ‘07 Progress of Science – II • Relinquishing “specialness” – Earth is not special (Copernicus) – Elements are not special (atomic theory) – Motion states are not special (relativity) – Life is not special (contra vitalism) – ... www.boundary.org – I am (Self is) not special www.boundarylab.org"The most important scientific revolutions all include, as their only common feature,the dethronement of human arrogance from one pedestal after another of previous shoup@boundary.orgconvictions about our centrality in the cosmos." -- Stephen Jay Gould Shoup – SSE ‘07 Shoup – SSE ‘07 7