STATES OF MATTERSTATES OF MATTER Based upon particle arrangementBased upon particle arrangement Based upon energy of particlesBased upon energy of particles Based upon distance between particlesBased upon distance between particles
Kinetic Theory of MatterKinetic Theory of MatterMatter is made up of particlesMatter is made up of particleswhich are in continual randomwhich are in continual randommotion.motion.
Let’s review matter…Let’s review matter… Matter is anything that takes up space &Matter is anything that takes up space &has mass.has mass. It occurs in Four states:It occurs in Four states:SolidSolidLiquidLiquidGasGasPlasmaPlasma
SolidsSolids Solids are matter with aSolids are matter with adefinite shape anddefinite shape andvolume.volume. The particles are in aThe particles are in atight, regular pattern.tight, regular pattern. The particles are closeThe particles are closetogether and vibratetogether and vibratearound a fixed positionaround a fixed position A solid does not takeA solid does not takethe shape of athe shape of acontainer in which it iscontainer in which it isHeat
LiquidLiquid AA liquidliquid is matter that hasis matter that hasa definite volume but noa definite volume but nodefinite shape.definite shape. Liquid takes the shape ofLiquid takes the shape ofthe container.the container. The volume of a liquid,The volume of a liquid,however, is the same nohowever, is the same nomatter what the shape ofmatter what the shape ofthe container.the container. Particles are further apart,Particles are further apart,and can move freely,and can move freely,are farare farenough apart to slideenough apart to slideover one another.over one another.Heat
ViscosityViscosity A liquid’s resistance toA liquid’s resistance toflow is known as theflow is known as theliquid’sliquid’s viscosityviscosity.. The slower a liquidThe slower a liquidflows, the higher itsflows, the higher itsviscosity is.viscosity is. For many liquids,For many liquids,viscosity increases asviscosity increases asthe liquid becomesthe liquid becomescolder.colder.We can see that the honeyis much more viscous thanthe red solutionpicture fromhttp://www.physics.hku.hk/~phys0607/lectures/chap05.html
Surface TensionSurface Tension The uneven forcesThe uneven forcesacting on the particlesacting on the particleson the surface of aon the surface of aliquid are calledliquid are calledsurfacesurface tensiontension.. Surface tensionSurface tensioncauses the liquid to actcauses the liquid to actas if a thin film wereas if a thin film werestretched across itsstretched across itssurface.surface.
GasGas GasGas is matter thatis matter thatdoes not have adoes not have adefinite shape ordefinite shape orvolume.volume. The particles in gasThe particles in gasare much farther apartare much farther apartthan those in a liquidthan those in a liquidor solid.or solid. Gas particles moveGas particles movevery freely at highvery freely at highspeeds in allspeeds in alldirections.directions.Heat
VaporVapor Matter that exists inMatter that exists inthe gas state but isthe gas state but isgenerally a liquid orgenerally a liquid orsolid at roomsolid at roomtemperature is calledtemperature is calledvapor.vapor. Water, for example, isWater, for example, isa liquid at rooma liquid at roomtemperature. Thus,temperature. Thus,water vapor is the termwater vapor is the termfor the gas state offor the gas state ofwater.water. Picture fromhttp://www.britannica.com/eb/art/print?id=88425&articleTypeId=0
PHASE CHANGESPHASE CHANGESDescription ofPhase ChangeTerm for PhaseChangeHeat Movement DuringPhase ChangeSolid toliquidMeltingHeat goesinto the solidas it melts.Liquidto solidFreezingHeat leavesthe liquid asit freezes.
PHASE CHANGESPHASE CHANGESDescription ofPhase ChangeTerm for PhaseChangeHeat Movement DuringPhase ChangeLiquid togasVaporization,whichincludesboiling andevaporationHeat goes into theliquid as itvaporizes.Gas toliquidCondensationHeat leaves thegas as itcondenses.Solid togasSublimationHeat goes into thesolid as itsublimates.
But what happens if you raise theBut what happens if you raise thetemperature to super-high levels…temperature to super-high levels…betweenbetween10001000°C and 1,000,000,000°C ?°C and 1,000,000,000°C ?Will everythingWill everythingjust be a gas?just be a gas?
STATES OF MATTERSTATES OF MATTERPLASMAPLASMA A plasma is anA plasma is anionized gas.ionized gas. A plasma is avery goodconductor ofelectricity and isaffected bymagnetic fields. Plasmas, likePlasmas, likegases have angases have anindefinite shapeindefinite shapeand an indefiniteand an indefinitevolume.volume.• Plasma is thecommon stateof matter
STATES OF MATTERSTATES OF MATTERSOLID LIQUID GAS PLASMATightly packed, ina regular patternVibrate, but do notmove from placeto placeClose togetherwith no regulararrangement.Vibrate, moveabout, and slidepast each otherWell separatedwith no regulararrangement.Vibrate and movefreely at highspeedsHas no definitevolume or shapeand is composedof electricalcharged particles
Some places where plasmas are found…Some places where plasmas are found…1.1. FlamesFlames