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# Force work power

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• Energy, Work, and Power Principles of Engineering TM Unit 1 – Lesson 1.2 – Work, Energy, and Power
• ### Force work power

1. 1. ForceWork and Power
2. 2. Formula for ForceForce = Mass * Acceleration
3. 3. Force – push or pull• a force always acts in a certain direction• metric unit of force (N)ex. if you push something, the force is in the direction of the push
4. 4. Mass How much matter is in an objectMeasured in grams (g) or Kilograms (kg)
5. 5. Acceleration Change in SpeedMeasured in meters per second squared (m/s2)
6. 6. Force examplesWeight is a forceWhy is weight a force?Name 3 other forces in your life.
7. 7. Forces in Nature• Electric force – ex. lightning• Magnetic force – ex. magnetic poles• Gravity
8. 8. What is gravity?• The force that attracts a body toward the center of the earth, or toward any other physical body having mass• Sir Isaac Newton – 1642 – 1727 – The Principia
9. 9. Gravity• the greater the distance between two objects, the smaller the gravitational force – the force of gravity decreases by the amount equal to one divided by the distance (d) squared • 1/d2
10. 10. What is air resistance?• air resistance – force that opposes the movement of an object in air
11. 11. Air Resistance• a larger surface area usually results in greater air resistance• lighter objects feel more air resistance than heavier objects
12. 12. Terminal Velocity• speed at which air resistance and gravity acting on an object are equal – as an object falls, it’s speed increases at a steady rate until it reaches it’s terminal velocity
13. 13. Vacuum – empty space• in a vacuum, all objects fall at the same speed
14. 14. What is friction?• Friction – force that opposes the motion of an object • the force of friction works in the opposite direction of the force of motion
15. 15. Types of Friction• Sliding Friction – the source of friction is the contact between two surfaces, at least one of which is in motion
16. 16. Types of Friction• Air Resistance – friction results from air pushing on an object as it is moving
17. 17. Types of Friction• Rolling Friction – friction between two surfaces that are not in constant contact • ex. wheels
18. 18. Friction• friction makes motion possible• friction also makes it hard to move objects• reducing friction makes it easier to move objects
19. 19. How can friction be reduced? • by changing sliding friction into rolling friction • by using lubricants – Lubricants – substances that reduce friction
20. 20. What is pressure?• Pressure – force per unit area
21. 21. Pressure• pressure is the amount of force acting on a surface• pressure equals force divided by area – p = f/a
22. 22. Pressure• pressure can be changed by changing the amount of force acting on an area• pressure can be changed by changing the area on which a force acts
23. 23. Fluid Pressure• pressure in gases and liquids
24. 24. Air Pressure• air pressure is caused by the motion of particles in the air• you do not feel the weight of the air because the pressure inside your body is equal to the air pressure
25. 25. Air Pressure• air pressure changes with altitude – the higher you are, the lower the air pressure
26. 26. Air Pressure• Barometer – instrument used to measure air pressure
27. 27. Water Pressure• the force of water pressure on an object is the same in all directions• water pressure changes with depth – the deeper you are, the greater the water pressure
28. 28. Water Pressure• Manometer – instrument used to measure pressure in a liquid
29. 29. What is Bernoulli’s principle? • Bernoulli’s Principle – principle that states that as the speed of a fluid increases, its pressure decreases
30. 30. Bernoulli’s Principle• airplane wings are designed to use Bernoulli’s principle – air traveling over the wings moves faster than air underneath – this reduces the pressure on top of the wing, allowing it to be pushed upward
31. 31. Bernoulli’s Principle• three forces combine to help an airplane fly – the upward force on a plane’s wing is called lift – a forward force, or thrust, helps the plane take off and maintain air speed – the air resistance on a plane is called drag
32. 32. Work is the transfer of energy through motion. Inorder for work to take place, a force must be exertedthrough a distance. The amount of work donedepends on two things: the amount of force exertedand the distance over which the force is applied.There are two factors to keep in mind whendeciding when work is being done: something has tomove and the motion must be in the direction of theapplied force.
33. 33. Formula for WorkWork can be calculated by using the following formula: Work=force x distance J = N X m
34. 34. Work is done on thebooks when they arebeing lifted, but nowork is done onthem when they arebeing held orcarried horizontally.
35. 35. PowerRate at which work is performed orenergy is expended
36. 36. W P= tPower equals Work divided by Time W = J / s Watt is the base unit of Power One watt is equal to 1 joule of work per second
37. 37. Types of PowerElectrical Power Uses electrical energy to do workMechanical Power Uses mechanical energy to do work (linear, rotary)Fluid Power Uses energy transferred by liquids (hydraulic) and gases (pneumatic)