Anarchy can be seen from two main points of view:• To refer to a social disorder. In this way, anarchy may sometimes imply political disorder or lawlessness within a society.• To refer only to a way of a non-attendance of a hierarchy. It means a society where there is no chief or supreme leader and also in which everyone’s voice has importance .
Anarchy is a largely used word in common language, taking different roles inthe collective opinion.The general perception of anarchy may vary between:• A pejorative word, used as a synonym of social disorder• The concept of Anarchism, a political system in itself, marked by precise beliefs in the role of individuals and state in a community, negating authority upon others
Anarchy is a large political movement built up with a lot of sub-movements.Although there is a lot of different opinions in the anarchist community, thereare common values shared by everyone. These values are the pillars of thetheory of anarchy as a political system:• Rejection of authority in all of its forms• Belief in self-management as a foundation of social life and starting point of democracy• Rejection of hierarchy• Belief in volunteerism• Freedom and Individual rights
Anarchism is generally seenas a left wingmovement, majority ofanarchists being strongbelievers of the left ideology.However, there are othermovements in anarchism thatcan take place in all of the Xaxis. That is explainable bythe fact that the roots ofanarchy are stronglylibertarian, and do notnecessarily specify anypreference between right orleft ideology.
• The word Anarchy comes from the Greek "a " (without) and "arkhê" (Power, control, governance). The word anarchist entered the English language during the English Civil War in 1642, with the Royalists calling their Republican enemies by this name. By the beginning of the 19th century, the term had already won his negative connotation.• For many people, the first anarchist societies date from the beginning of societies in itself, considering societies as the aborigine one anarchist. This belief comes from the neither non-hierarchic nor authoritarian life style they lived. The best example of anarchism in a developed society is the First International and the Paris Commune.
• The first anarchist thoughts were written by Taoist monks in the 6th century B.C. and can also be found in the work of Diogenes, a Greek philosopher. However, the first libertarian use of it has been made by the French author Étienne de la Boétie during the enlightenment. Diogenes Étienne de la Boétie
• During the beginning of the 21st century, the anarchist movement won a lot of members through the different anti-war, anti-globalization, anti- capitalist movements. We see many of their actions in manifestations such as those for the G8, the WTO or, like we saw in Québec in 2001, free- trade groups meeting. Summit of the Americas, 2001
• The system of an anarchist government is based on self-management, meaning that the community is totally independent. It has to work by his own way. There is no head leader or chief and there is no hierarchy. Unlike the other systems of government, it is a full and direct democracy.
The anarchist model based on self-management has already been tried in afew French associations, leading to the writing of some postulates depictingit in a more political point of view:• The elimination of any distinction between rulers and ruled• Transparency and legitimacy of decisions• The non-appropriation by some of the wealth produced by the collectivity• The affirmation of the ability of humans to organize themselves without a leader
• In Anarchy, choices are made in a fully democratic way. In other words, when the time comes to make a choice, it is not only one person or one group of persons that makes choices for all the others. Every single individual, in the anarchist political system, has the right to participate and vote for what he prefers.
Anarchists are not supposed to organise elections and vote, because bydoing so, they support a form of government, which is against the ideology ofthe political system itself.
• Democracy in the literary sense can only be a stateless society:” Power belongs to the people to the extent that it is the people who reallyexercises it " – Giovanni Sartori, Democrazia Cos’é.• According to the democratic system in which we live, it is not considered that the people have the whole power, because they vote for someone/something else that will have this power = representative democracy.• In an anarchist system, there are micro-communities in which every person vote and comment each decision that the whole community has to make = direct democracy.
• When talking about a larger territory, we apply what is called the participatory democracy. This kind of democracy tends to advocate more involved citizen participation rather than in the representative democracy, which is made to create opportunities for all members of a population to contribute in the decision-making.• Anarchy is the most complete form of democracy because it is easier for a member of the community to contribute in the decision-making than in any other system.
1- Anarcho-syndicalism is one of the major forms of social anarchism2- The main idea behind it is to combine the economic methods of unionswith the politic of anarchism3- Anarcho-syndicalism can now be considered as a synonym of anarchismbecause mostly all anarchists approve the way to make a revolution assuggested by it4- Contrary to the goal behind communism, the ideal is not one big union butmany of them (concept of free association)5- The symbol of anarcho-syndicalism is a red and black flag
Anarcho-communism and Marxist communism• In the Marxist communist theory, there is two phases: The inferior phase (socialism) and the superior phase (self-management, communism)• Anarchist and communist systems lead to the same goal, except that they dont have the same methods to achieve that goal• Anarchists are reproaching communists to tolerate socialism, which is, according to them, the biggest oppression of the majority• Communists are reproaching anarchists to go toward self management too fast, at a pace that could lead to chaos• There is mostly no difference between anarchism and anarcho-communism
(1809 –1865)• French politician, mutualist philosopher, economist, and socialist. He was a member of the French Parliament and the first person to call himself an "anarchist".• A little while after he published his first politic work, Qu’est-ce que la propriété, he got kicked out of his pension because of it• Pierre-Joseph Proudhon tried to create a national bank that can lend money without behoof (benefits, advantages)• Proudhon is against the socialist and the communist systems of government, considering that anarchism is more efficient• It is his publication Qu’Est-ce que la propriété that convinced Karl Marx that private proprieties should be abolished
(1809 –1865)“Property is theft ”“Anarchy is order withoutpower ”