By
Patricia
Vargas
patricia vargas


Pepper & Lorah (2008) draw the
connection that“…both personal
and career issues are presented
to a counselor regardless...
“I almost became homeless, broke up with
my partner, and was under the most
unbelievable amount of stress for 2 months.”
(...
Various studies have show transgender individuals:







15%-57% have experienced
some form of employment
discriminat...






There are“…no know published empirical studies that evaluate
workplace issues for trans[gender] individuals or pr...


Perceived workplace
discrimination is linked with low
job satisfaction, greater
psychological distress,
depressive symp...
Issues a transgender client can face in the workplace:






“…individuals experiencing untreated gender dysphoria may ...




“…the pain and fear that occur and cause them to feel unsafe
in the workplace when coworkers[/supervisors] become
co...


By“…challenging binary views on
gender, we demonstrate that these
renegotiations often push
transmen and transwomen
tow...


“Even when our
[transgender
individuals] want to
challenge this rigid
binary thinking about
gender, they can feel
press...








Those who choose to stay at their current place of employment have
“…long-term financial stability such as sal...


The interview process: A transgender individual “…may be in the
process of developing confidence and self-esteem; conve...


With a new position and different duty at work, transgender
individuals may “…have a difficult time performing tasks th...




“…Transgender clients may need
help with self-assessment, career
exploration, career decision making,
career plannin...




“Helping clients prepare with practice
interviews and role-paying may help
them build the confidence and poise
neces...
 “Helping

[transgender] clients become
aware of possible obstacles and options
may not make their transition easy, but i...
Brewster, M. E., Velez, B., DeBlaere, C., & Moradi, B. (2012). Transgender individuals‟
workplace experiences: The applica...
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Week 12 career issues copy

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Week 12 career issues copy

  1. 1. By Patricia Vargas patricia vargas
  2. 2.  Pepper & Lorah (2008) draw the connection that“…both personal and career issues are presented to a counselor regardless of whether she or he identifies as a career counselor or mental health care counselor.” All mental health professionals provide counseling to individuals to help improve their quality of living.  “Research conducted with trans[gender] individuals about their experiences in psychotherapy suggests that workplace conflicts and concerns are primary reasons for seeking therapy.” (Pepper & Lorah, 2008)   Counselors are to “…view their clients and their clients‟ concerns as a „constellation‟ of factors, including work, career, love, and friendships.” (Pepper & Lorah, 2008) patricia vargas
  3. 3. “I almost became homeless, broke up with my partner, and was under the most unbelievable amount of stress for 2 months.” (Dispenza, Watson, Chung, & Brack, 2012) – A transman experience of careerrelated discrimination patricia vargas
  4. 4. Various studies have show transgender individuals:     15%-57% have experienced some form of employment discrimination. (Dispenza, Watson, Chung, & Brack, 2012) 13%-56% were terminated from their jobs. (Dispenza, Watson, Chung, & Brack, 2012) 13%-47% were denied employment on the basis of their gender orientation and expression. (Dispenza, Watson, Chung, & Brack, 2012) 22%-31% were harassed at their place of employment.   19% were denied a promotion because of their gender identity. (Dispenza, Watson, Chung, & Brack, 2012) 37.1% some type of workplace discrimination in their lifetime. (Dispenza, Watson, Chung, & Brack, 2012) (Dispenza, Watson, Chung, & Brack, 2012) patricia vargas
  5. 5.    There are“…no know published empirical studies that evaluate workplace issues for trans[gender] individuals or provide career interventions to meet their specific needs.” (Pepper & Lorah, 2008) Transgender individuals encounter complicated employment situations such as limited employment opportunities (e.g. rejection during interviews and offers in salary and position), workplace discrimination (e.g. lack of promotions and training opportunities, negative rumors), and discrepancies among legal documents during hiring processes (e.g. identification card, birth certificates, and titles).” (Sangganjanavanich, 2009)Transgender individuals are also highly underemployed .(Kirk & Belovics, 2008) “The emotional weight of dealing with the transition, negotiating how to transition in the workplace, and encountering prejudice and discrimination are all factors that may adversely affect career decisions for individuals in the trans community.” (Pepper & Lorah, 2008) patricia vargas
  6. 6.  Perceived workplace discrimination is linked with low job satisfaction, greater psychological distress, depressive symptoms, and health-related problems. (Brewster, Velez, DeBlaere, & Moradi, 2012)  Transgender individuals reported feeling “… pressure to conform to normative gender presentations and reported using various gender identity management techniques [like:] – some presenting openly as transgender, others remaining stealth (choosing to be known only as their current gender), and others being deep stealth (severing all ties with the transgender community).” ( Brewster, Velez, DeBlaere, & Moradi, 2012) patricia vargas
  7. 7. Issues a transgender client can face in the workplace:    “…individuals experiencing untreated gender dysphoria may be at an increased risk for variations of mental depression and attempts at suicide.” (Kirk & Belovics, 2008) “…most common psychological conditions resulting from [workplace discrimination and unfair] treatment revolved around increasing levels of anxiety/stress; depression; loss of confidence; and in some cases, alcohol or drug dependency.” (Kirk & Belovics, 2008) “…concerns or fear at the prospect of transitioning at work. These concerns may include deciding whether to transition at their present job, losing their current job because their transition, losing job experience under their pervious name, and experiencing prejudice and discrimination as well as coworkers‟ negative responses. Even the decision about which bathroom to use is a significant concern…” (Pepper & Lorah, 2008) patricia vargas
  8. 8.   “…the pain and fear that occur and cause them to feel unsafe in the workplace when coworkers[/supervisors] become confused, frustrated, or angry about their transsexual coworker‟s transition and become verbally or physically threatening.” (Pepper & Lorah, 2008) “…pre-transition transmen have more leeway for adopting masculine appearances and behaviour, which gives them more experience with masculinity when they transition. As men, on the other hand, pre-transition transwomen face severe social sanctions for expressing interest in feminine styles and behaviour.” (Schilt & Connell, 2007) This pre-transition experience or lack of may cause a client more or less anxiety in their transition process. patricia vargas
  9. 9.  By“…challenging binary views on gender, we demonstrate that these renegotiations often push transmen and transwomen towards reproducing workplace gender hierarchies that privilege masculinity and devalue femininity, thereby reaffirming their coworkers‟ beliefs in the naturalness of the gender binary in the workplace.” (Schilt & Connell, 2007) For a transwomen, assertiveness is now labeled bossy. (Schilt & Connell, 2007) For transmen, asking to lift heavy items in the workplace. (Schilt & Connell, 2007)  “…transmen and transwomen often clearly recognize differences in treatment „before and after‟especially as changes in treatment often mean a gain of privilege (for transmen) or a loss of privilege (for transwomen).” (Schilt & Connell, 2007) patricia vargas
  10. 10.  “Even when our [transgender individuals] want to challenge this rigid binary thinking about gender, they can feel pressure to down play their opposition because of their need to maintain steady employment.” (Schilt & Connell, 2007)  “Both transmen and transwomen recount their sudden realization that changing gender at work requires a renegotiation of once comfortable international styles [with those they work with].” (Schilt & Connell, 2007) patricia vargas
  11. 11.     Those who choose to stay at their current place of employment have “…long-term financial stability such as salary, compensation, and [health] benefits…” to help cover transitions costs. (Sangganjanavanich, 2009) It is “…less stressful for individuals to remain at their current job because they will be around familiar colleagues and their job duties will most likely remain constant[; especially during struggling with] physical and emotional fluctuations caused by hormonal treatments during transition (Pepper & Lorah, 2008)” Looking for a new job “…nobody is aware of their past because they can create new identities and reinvent their lives” (Sangganjanavanich, 2009) and they “…may not have to „ut themselves to their coworkers…if they easily pass as the other gender.” (Pepper & Lorah, 2008) Being open at work about being transgender “… relieves one of the stresses of having to constantly hide who one is, and this may promote genuine and satisfactory relationships with coworkers and supervisors.” (Brewster, Velez, DeBlaere, & Moradi, 2012) patricia vargas
  12. 12.  The interview process: A transgender individual “…may be in the process of developing confidence and self-esteem; conveying an assertive[, confident,] and poised image to prospective employers may be challenging and, possibly, emotionally exhausting.” (Pepper & Lorah, 2008).     Transgender “…individuals may only be able to obtain entry-level positions… refus[ing] to report their work experience and employment history because they want their previous gender identity to remain private.” (Sangganjanavanich, 2009) More training or education required before obtaining a new job (Sangganjanavanich, 2009). Lack of financial support when looking for a new job (Sangganjanavanich, 2009) may affect the medical costs (2008 Kirk & Belovics) and length of medical procedures for transitioning (2009 Sangganjanavanich ). Their “…current co-workers, employers, and customers may have a difficult time adjusting to new expressions of gender…” (Sangganjanavanich, 2009) and use improper pronouns or previous name (Pepper & Lorah, 2008). Experiences of “…overt and covert discrimination in the workplace, such as demotion, distancing, and gossip” (Sangganjanavanich, 2009) and “…verbally or physically threatening” (Pepper & Lorah, 2008). patricia vargas
  13. 13.  With a new position and different duty at work, transgender individuals may “…have a difficult time performing tasks that emphasize the characteristics of gender stereotypes…” (Sangganjanavanich, 2009)    Being able to use the gender appropriate bathroom at work may not be allowed due to workplace policies; “…requiring trans individuals to constantly subject themselves to situations in which they (and their coworkers) are uncomfortable cannot possibly result in a positive (or productive) work environment.” (Pepper & Lorah, 2008) Name change: A transgender individual has to change their name on“…checking accounts, credit cards, business accounts, memberships, driver‟s license, …social security cards,… company records, [and] payroll department…For a period of time, the papers no longer reflect the worker‟s actual appearance.” (Kirk & Belovics, 2008) The “…aging and the retirement aspects of the career development process… [and] the potential long-term effects regarding the quality of life with and without health care...[;] the transition process could require lifelong medical attention.” (Dispenza, Watson, Chung, & Brack, 2012) patricia vargas
  14. 14.   “…Transgender clients may need help with self-assessment, career exploration, career decision making, career planning, changing careers or positions, job searching, and salary negotiations.” (Kirk & Belovics, 2008 ) Counselors “…working with transgender individuals[should be] “… familiar with organizational nondiscrimination policies, understanding gender transition and its impact, implementing appropriate career assessments, and being knowledgeable in sexual identity management models.” ((Sangganjanavanich, 2009)   There are benefits and drawbacks/challenges of being in a workplace as a transgender individual and counselors “…helping clients make the best decision based on their unique circumstances, [discussing their needs, desires, and values] and the consequences thereof may be vital to a healthy transition.” (Pepper & Lorah, 2008) “Counselors are encouraged to support clients as they negotiate their level of „outness‟ (i.e. selfdisclosure about one‟s sexual orientation and gender identity) and identify people who would be safe [trans allies] and supportive at work and to engage in a discussion that explores the cost-benefit analysis of being out at work.” (Pepper & Lorah, 2008) patricia vargas
  15. 15.   “Helping clients prepare with practice interviews and role-paying may help them build the confidence and poise necessary, as well as strengthen them emotionally to deal with potentially difficult situations.” (Pepper & Lorah, 2008) “…Bathroom concerns provide counselors with a specific means to focus on underlying fears, anxiety, and anger in their clients. Explore the [bathroom use] issue and brainstorm solutions that may mollify the employer while maintaining the client‟s dignity.” (Pepper & Lorah, 2008)  As a counselor “…seeking out resources[, legal resources,] and more information about federal and individuals state laws…” for your client. (Pepper & Lorah, 2008)  Counselors “…must be careful not to push their transgender clients to disclose their identities without careful considerations of clients‟ particular circumstances and the potential costs and benefit of disclosure.…tak[ing] into consideration the environment (e.g. workplace support or discrimination) and individual (e.g. social support, psychological and economic resources) factors that may influence transgender clients‟ identity management.” (Brewster, Velez, DeBlaere, & Moradi, 2012) patricia vargas
  16. 16.  “Helping [transgender] clients become aware of possible obstacles and options may not make their transition easy, but it will help them make thoughtful and wellconsidered plans as they begin their new journey.” (Pepper & Lorah, 2008) patricia vargas
  17. 17. Brewster, M. E., Velez, B., DeBlaere, C., & Moradi, B. (2012). Transgender individuals‟ workplace experiences: The applicability of sexual minority measures and models. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 59(1), 60-70. doi:10.1037/a0025206 Dispenza, F., Watson, L. B., Chung, Y. B., & Brack, G. (2012). Experience of careerrelated discrimination for female-to-male transgender persons: A qualitative study. The Career Development Quarterly, 60, 65-81. Kirk, J., & Belovics, R. (2008). Understanding and counseling transgender clients. Journal of Employment Counseling, 45, 29-43. Pepper, S. M., & Lorah, P. (2008). Career issues and workplace considerations for the transsexual community: Bridging a gap of knowledge for career counselors and mental health care providers. The Career Development Quarterly, 56, 330-343. Sangganjanavanich, V. F. (2009). Career development practitioners as advocates for transgender individuals: Understanding gender transition. Journal of Employment Counseling, 46, 128-135. Schilt, K., & Connell, C. (2007). Do workplace gender transitions make gender trouble? Gender, Work, and Organization, 14(6), 596-618. patricia vargas

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