What is interactive learning system(ILS)?• A learning system in which different components act upon each other to facilitate learning. technologies, theories Process, format, outcome, attitude…• Different types of interaction • Learner-content • Learner-instructor Different components in the system Learning • Learner-learner • Learner-interface• Roots in three major learning theories • Behaviorist Interacting facilitating • Cognitive • Social-learning• Is there a learning system that is not interactive?
The role of technologies“Interactivity is an intrinsiccharacteristic for mosttechnologies…” (Greenfield& Cocking, 1996) user-created virtual environments • Longer information retention time (street & Goodman 1998), • Increased learning speed and “click to select” level (Horton, 2000), • Enhanced collaboration among peers (Brown et al., 2008; Delwiche, 2006), • Higher confidence and motivation from learners (Klassen, 2001).
Four Types of Emerging Technologies Type of ICT tools Definition Examples Educational Online learning platforms that connect learners using Ning, Classroom 2.0, Elgg Networking social networking technologies, exhibiting similar functions to sites like Facebook or MySpace. Web-Based A set of online applications or services that expand Wiki, blog, podcasting, Learning learners’ abilities to interact and collaborate with each social bookmarking, other in the process of searching, receiving, virtual worlds organizing, and generating educational content Mobile Learning Mobile devices or technologies used for educational Smartphone, PDA, GPS purposes that support different aspects of instruction (for augmented reality or make new educational activities available. games), interactive response pads Classroom Stand-alone devices that are used in traditional Interactive whiteboard, Equipment classrooms to facilitate the interaction between touch-screen computer, teachers and students in different class activities. Kiosk
Change brought by emergingtechnologies Easier operation Wider scope Better of simulation interaction Broader channels for interaction Greater mobility
A shifting Paradigm in educationaltechnology researchProblems New TrendThe proliferation of studies on cutting-edge More and more studies were conducted totechnology applications often fails to be built upon explore the relationship between ICT andthe existing theories and scholarship in the field of learning theories, seeking to design learninginstructional design, ignoring both well-established systems based on robust theoretical foundationprinciples of learning and findings from basic (Jonassen, Peck, & Wilson, 1999; Vrasidas, 2000;educational psychology research. (Ross, Morrison & Mandell, Sorge, & Russell, 2002; Kirschner et.Lowther, 2010) al, 2004; Wang, & Woo, 2007)Technologies are often used infrequently andinconsistently in educational settings and have little Mediaconclusive effect (Christensen et al., 2008; Brown & comparison and effectGreen, 2008; Selwyn, 2011). Teachers often use studycomputers as a minor supplement to enhance theirteaching (Aslan & Reigeluth, 2011), and the use ofemerging technologies is often limited to merelysupporting the traditional standardized and Designcentralized educational model (Cuban, 2001). research and formative research
A few good examples from researchTechnology Tools used in ILS Instructional Theory used in ILS• Using Ning, an educational networking Collaborative learning theory site, to teach an undergraduate level technology course for pre-service Collaborative learning theory is based on teachers (Hoffman, 2009) four assumptions regarding the learning process (Smith & MacGregor, 1992):• Using the Nutrition Game, an educational game developed inside Second Life, to 1. Learning is an active, constructive teach children knowledge of nutrition and healthy eating habits (Cooper, 2007) process.• Using Environmental Detective, an 2. Learning depends on rich contexts. augmented reality game that utilized GPS or pocket PC, to teach middle school 3. Learners are diverse. students environmental science (Klopfer & Squire, 2008) 4. Learning is inherently social.• Using an interactive whiteboard to teach When designing an effective ILS, the science in elementary school (Gillen affordances of ICT tools should be exploited et.al, 2008) in the pedagogic context that supports those learning assumptions.
NingKey Features Benefits:Customizable design features Positive learning experienceWidgets include blogs, discussion A sense of community and personalboard, individualized profiles, file connectionsharing, synchronous and asynchronousmessaging, and grouping and sub- Higher motivation, engagement andgrouping of its members. satisfaction.Friends-making mechanism Problems: Occasional dysfunction Entry level computer skill requirement Privacy concerns
Nutrition GameKey Features: Benefits:Simulated experience of dining in three Fun learning experiencerestaurant (fast food, soul food, Chinese) Providing different experiencePersonalized experience with real data (personalized or hypothetical, extreme)like height, weight, age, gender andactivity level. Significant self-reported knowledge gameA variety of choices and responsive Problems:results. Technical (lagging, unresponsive) Unable to change body shape Time consuming to design and develop
Environmental DetectiveKey Features BenefitsCombination of fantasy and reality Highly engaging and active learning experienceA problem-based learning experience Scientific inquiry skillsSupported by internal scaffolding andonline data base higher-order learningopen-ended, with multiple paths to task Collaborative learning experiencecompletion Problems Not reported
Interactive WhiteboardKey Features Benefits (additional)All features of a touch-screen computer Better learner-learner, learner-instructor interaction. (work on the same taskMultiple presentation simultaneously)(video, audio, animation) Make the process visible (using cognitiveIntegrated scaffolding tools like tools)annotations, visual clues… Easier to prepare a lesson with IWBShared work place (collaborative classproject) Students are engaged and motivated Problems: High demand on hardware and software Teacher training needed Too much attention to the IWB instead of content.
Assumption No. 1: Learning is anactive, constructive process.ICT tools should actively engage learnersin meaningful learning activities whichoffer them an opportunity to apply newlyacquired information and ideas in theirconstructive inquiries, such as theorytesting, model development, and problemsolving.Example: The Nutrition Game.The game did not provide direct lecturesabout the healthy eating habit, but ratheroffered learners a chance to exploredifferent food choices and learn theirimpact on health.
Assumption No. 1: Learning is anactive, constructive process.ICT should also provide various cognitivetools to guide such constructiveprocesses, offering instructional scaffoldsalong the way.Example: Environmental Detective (ED).Learners were required to solve asimulated toxin spill problem bythemselves, they received guidance byinteracting with virtual avatars, searchingonline, and accessing the resourcedatabase.
Assumption No. 2: Learning dependson rich contexts.In contrast to most lecture-basedteaching, ICT tools should establish alearning context that is learner-centered, allowing for constant exchange ofideas, frequent reflection, and multimodalpresentation.Example: Interactive Whiteboard (IWB)The IWB case describes a learning contextwhere teachers used the affordances of theIWB to present the concept of evaporation indifferent forms(lecture, video, image, text, and diagrams)and facilitate learners’ discussion andreflection using highlights, annotation, andprompts.The other three cases also indicate that richcontexts are not confined to the classroomsetting, and can also occur in virtual andoutdoor learning environments.
Assumption No. 3: Learners are diverse.ICT tools should be used to accommodatelearner differences in backgroundknowledge and skills, learning styles, oraspirations, by offering interactivefeatures that give learners’ control overthe learning process and allow them tocustomize their own learningpace, sequence, and preference.Example: Ning and EnvironmentalDetectiveThe Ning’s asynchronous messagingsystem and the open-ended game designin ED are interactive features that supportsuch adaptations.
Assumption No. 4: Learning isinherently social.To enhance the social aspect of learningrequires a learning system that canmaximize the intellectual synergy throughsimultaneous engagement of learners.ICT tools can aid in this process byfacilitating interpersonal communicationswith peers and instructors and bysupporting learners’ contribution to thelearning resources, strategies, and bodyof knowledge.Example: NingSocial interactions between learners thatwere enhanced throughpersonalization, such as adding profilepictures or sharing personal information.Learners are more likely to contributewhen they feel personally connected.
Guidelines for designing ILS based onthe collaborative learning theoryThrough the lens of collaborative learning theory, this paper proposes thatthe following features should be considered when designing effectiveinteractive learning systems:• Actively engage learners in meaningful learning activities• Allow learners to customize their own learning pace, sequence and preference• Provide prompt feedback and opportunities for reflection• Facilitate interpersonal communication with peers and instructors/experts• Encourage learners to contribute to the learning resources, strategies, and body of knowledge• Integrate various cognitive tools to support learning process
“Within a particular design, the mediumenables and constrains the method; themethod draws on and instantiates thecapabilities of the medium... a good designwill integrate them” ------ Kozma, 1991
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