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Superdomestication, feed-forward breeding and climate proofing crops
Superdomestication, feed-forward breeding and climate proofing crops
Superdomestication, feed-forward breeding and climate proofing crops
Superdomestication, feed-forward breeding and climate proofing crops
Superdomestication, feed-forward breeding and climate proofing crops
Superdomestication, feed-forward breeding and climate proofing crops
Superdomestication, feed-forward breeding and climate proofing crops
Superdomestication, feed-forward breeding and climate proofing crops
Superdomestication, feed-forward breeding and climate proofing crops
Superdomestication, feed-forward breeding and climate proofing crops
Superdomestication, feed-forward breeding and climate proofing crops
Superdomestication, feed-forward breeding and climate proofing crops
Superdomestication, feed-forward breeding and climate proofing crops
Superdomestication, feed-forward breeding and climate proofing crops
Superdomestication, feed-forward breeding and climate proofing crops
Superdomestication, feed-forward breeding and climate proofing crops
Superdomestication, feed-forward breeding and climate proofing crops
Superdomestication, feed-forward breeding and climate proofing crops
Superdomestication, feed-forward breeding and climate proofing crops
Superdomestication, feed-forward breeding and climate proofing crops
Superdomestication, feed-forward breeding and climate proofing crops
Superdomestication, feed-forward breeding and climate proofing crops
Superdomestication, feed-forward breeding and climate proofing crops
Superdomestication, feed-forward breeding and climate proofing crops
Superdomestication, feed-forward breeding and climate proofing crops
Superdomestication, feed-forward breeding and climate proofing crops
Superdomestication, feed-forward breeding and climate proofing crops
Superdomestication, feed-forward breeding and climate proofing crops
Superdomestication, feed-forward breeding and climate proofing crops
Superdomestication, feed-forward breeding and climate proofing crops
Superdomestication, feed-forward breeding and climate proofing crops
Superdomestication, feed-forward breeding and climate proofing crops
Superdomestication, feed-forward breeding and climate proofing crops
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Superdomestication, feed-forward breeding and climate proofing crops

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See text at http://molcyt.org/2012/11/29/superdomestication-feed-forward-breeding-and-climate-proofing-crops/ which also links the the YouTube talk using these slides

See text at http://molcyt.org/2012/11/29/superdomestication-feed-forward-breeding-and-climate-proofing-crops/ which also links the the YouTube talk using these slides

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  • Patg Heslop-Harrison www.molcyt.com
  • Patg Heslop-Harrison www.molcyt.com
  • Trude Schwarzacher ts32@le.ac.uk www.molcyt.com
  • Trude Schwarzacher ts32@le.ac.uk www.molcyt.com
  • Trude Schwarzacher ts32@le.ac.uk www.molcyt.com
  • Transcript

    1. Superdomestication and feed-forward plant breeding: Genomic and molecular cytogenetic approacheshttp://molcyt.org/2012/11/29/superdomestication-feed-forwa Trude Schwarzacher and Pat Heslop-Harrison ts32@le.ac.uk and phh4@le.ac.uk www.molcyt.com These are the slides that go with the talk on YouTube and some text on molcyt.com for commentary. See: http://molcyt.org/2012/11/29/superdomestication-feed-forwa
    2. • The talk on http://molcyt.org/2012/11/29/superdomestication-feed-forward-breeding-and starts with my personal approach to climate proofing! • Climate Proofing of Food Crops: Genetic Improvement for Adaptation to High Temperatures in Drought Prone Areas and Beyond: an IAEA/FAO Coordinated Research Programme (CRP)http://www-naweb.iaea.org/nafa/pbg/crp/drought-prone-areas.htmlarchive:http://www.webcitation.org/6CKx3EVswContribution from Pat Heslop-Harrison andTrude Schwarzacher at www.molcyt.com to:
    3. http://www.iaea.org/newscenter/news/2012/feedbillions.htmlArchived URL at http://www.webcitation.org/6CKtUmjvr
    4. 7234 5 May 2012 7N33.558 38E40.120 North of Hawassa, Ethiopis
    5. http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/ homepage of 19 Nov 2012
    6. Birth of Agriculture 10,000 years ago Domestication of cropshttp://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/globalwarming/paleobefore.html
    7. Threats to sustainability: no different for 10,000 years• Habitat destruction• Climate change (abiotic stresses)• Diseases (biotic stresses)• Changes in what people want• Blindness to what is happening
    8. Phases of Domestication• Heslop-Harrison JS, Schwarzacher T. 2012. Genetics and genomics of crop domestication In: Plant Biotechnology and Agriculture: Prospects for the 21st century. Eds Arie Altman, Paul Michael Hasegawa pp 3-18.• http://tinyurl.com/cropdomestication• Arie Altman - extensive work with IAEA-Genetics and Plant Breeding• See www.molcyt.com for full list of papers; all available on request, many downloadable with password and userID both ‘visitor’
    9. Theme of my talkSuperdomestication and feed-forward plant breeding: Genomic and molecular cytogenetic approaches See: http://tinyurl.com/superdomestication Climate Proofing of Food Crops: Genetic Improvement • Planning ahead! What do we need? • How do we achieve these objectives? – Knowledge of past – Biodiversity, mutation, hybrids/introgression – Abiotic focus, but diseases also change with abiotic changes; sustainability critical – Approaches and technology • Widely applicable and generic approaches
    10. Recent molcyt.com research• Banana genome sequence (published 2012)• Tri-species hybrid germplasm in Brassica• Wheat germplasm including introgression from wild Thinopyrum with novel virus resistance loci• Somatic hybrids in Nicotiana for disease resistance (published 2011)• Biomass gene identification in Lolium• Origin of Panicum miliaceum (broomcorn millet) – the worlds most water-efficient crop• Genome evolution in Arachis – peanut/groundnut• Wild and landrace characterization of linseed/flax (including farmer-led trials)
    11. Banana genome sequenceLed by Angelique D’Hont, France520 Mbp giving knowledge of ALL36,000 genes including theagronomic and food-relatedpropertiesUse for diversity access & breeding • Fundamental importance to research since it allows us to compare banana with the related grasses and palms to understand genome evolutionary processes http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v488/n7410/pdf/nature11241.pdf http://molcyt.org/2012/08/16/banana-genome-sequence-in-the-news/
    12. Brassica diversity• Important vegetable /oil worldwide• Irrigation water already limiting• Wide germplasm pool B. rapa AA genomes B. juncea 2n=2x=20 B. napus AABB genomes AACC genomes 2n=4x=36 2n=4x=38 B. nigra BB B. carinata B. oleracea genomes BBCC genomes CC genomes 2n=2x=16 2n=4x=34 2n=2x=18• Tri-species hybrid in Pakistani Brassica juncea 2n=36 landrace) B. rapa (AA) B. nigra (BB) B. juncea B. oleracea (CC) B. juncea (AABB) B. napus (AACC) (AABB)00000000000 Faisal Nouroz & PHH 2013 (submitted 2012)
    13. Wsm-1: only effective source of resistance to the virus WSMVViruses cannot be readily cured (as in human) and normally thecontrol in wheat is by spraying insecticides to stop insect spread In situ hybridization showing (red) two chromosomes arms introgressed from Parental lines and hybrid derivatives: the wild Thinopyrum into wheat Yellow plants are infectedhttp://dx.doi.org/10.3198/jpr2008.06.0345crc Work led by RA Graybosch, USDA; hybrids made originally by his colleagues
    14. IWG genomic DNA biotin dpTa1 digoxigenin
    15. http://dx.doi.org/10.3198/jpr2008.06.0345crc
    16. Chromosome and genome engineeringCell fusionhybrid of twotetraploidtobacco species,transferringfungusresistance Deval Patel, Badakshi, HH, Led by Mike Davey Annals of Botany 2011http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/content/108/5/809.full
    17. Four sets of Nicotianachromosomes hybrididentified inNicotiana 4x + 4xsomatic cell cell fusionsfusion hybrid Each of 4 chromosome sets has distinctive repetitive DNA when probed with genomic DNAhttp://aob.oxfordjournals.org/content/108/5 Patel et al/809.full Ann Bot 2011
    18. Panicum miliaceumBroomcorn milletAmong the first wave of domesticatedspeciesAs important as rice 8,000 years agoNow only 1% of the production of rice orwheatP. miliaceum: the worlds most water-efficient cropIt is tetraploid; what are the parents?Why did it not join modern staple crops?2n = 4x = 36Led by Harriet Hunt, Cambridge withFarah Badakshi, PHH www.molcyt.com
    19. Panicum miliaceum TheBroomcorn millet ancestral genomes in PanicumAmong the first wave of domesticated miliaceumspeciesAs important as rice 8,000 years agoNow only 1% of the production of rice orwheatP. miliaceum: the worlds most water-efficient cropIt is tetraploid; what are the parents?Why did it not join modern staple crops?2n = 4x = 36Led by Harriet Hunt, Cambridge withFarah Badakshi, PHH www.molcyt.com
    20. Arachis genome evolutionPeanut is a tetraploid arising from twodiploids maybe as little a 10,000 years agoThe diploids diverged from a commonancestor 3.5 M years agoThe genes remain in a similar order, but afew families of repeated, mobile DNAsequences, LTR retrotransposons, have Genomediverged and amplified, distinguishing the repeatgenomes in the tetraploid contentLeaders: Ana Claudia Araujo, DavidBertioli, EMBRAPA, Brazil 2013This work:https://pag.confex.com/pag/xx/webprogram/Paper3749.htmlRelated:http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2012/11/05/aob.mcs237.full
    21. Linum usitatissimum – Linseed/Flax• Project with Worku Mhiret, University of Gondar, Ethiopia• 200 Accessions characterized by morphology and molecular markers• 350 F2 plants from 6 crosses characterized by morphology and markers• Farmer-led trials established
    22. Lolium ryegrass QTLsMajor grass for animalproductionAbiotic stress resistanceand biomass are key targetsWhich genes are involved?Field trial of segregating population showslocation of genes involved; now havecandidate genes to selectCombining desirablecharactersCeline Tomaszewski, Ulrike Anhalt; Leader Susanne Barth (Ireland)HH (UK); publication in preparationSee molcyt.com; fine map and candidate genes in preparationThesis on-line: https://lra.le.ac.uk/jspui/bitstream/2381/10827/1/2012TomaszewskiCphd.pdf
    23. United Nations Millennium Development Goals- MDGs• Goal 1 – Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger• Goal 2 – Achieve universal primary education• Goal 3 – Promote gender equity and empower women• Goal 4 – Reduce child mortality• Goal 5 – Improve maternal health• Goal 6- Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases• Goal 7 - Ensure environmental sustainability• Goal 8 - Develop a global partnership for development
    24. Recent molcyt.com outputs• Training• Fellowships – Pakistan; Brazil; China; India + Europe/USA• PhD students – Ethiopia; Pakistan; India; Ghana; Saudi + Europe• Courses and training• Refereeing• Programme reviews, advisory visits• Website development (help needed!)• Project development• We are a research provider and not a research funder• Very keen to develop projects with CRP Partners
    25. Conventional Breeding• Cross the best with the best and hope for something better Superdomestication• Decide what is wanted and then plan how to get it• - variety crosses• - mutations• - genepool• - genes
    26. Superdomestication• Learn what has been done – Speciation timescales of millions of years – Hybridization timescale thousands of years – Breeding timescale hundreds of years• Learn what we want to do – Sustainable crop production – High yield, low input (chemical, mechanical and labour!) – Stable/Reliable/Robust/Buffered – Capital input? Transportable/storable?• Do it!
    27. 50 years of plant breeding progress
    28. CytoGenomics …• The genepool has the diversity to address these challenges …• New methods to exploit and characterize germplasm let use make better and sustainable use of the genepool
    29. Welcome for collaborators
    30. Superdomestication and feed-forward plant breeding: Genomic and molecular cytogenetic approacheshttp://molcyt.org/2012/11/29/superdomestication-feed- forward-breeding-and-climate-proofing-crops/ Trude Schwarzacher and Pat Heslop-Harrison ts32@le.ac.uk and phh4@le.ac.uk www.molcyt.com These are the slides that go with the talk on YouTube and some text on molcyt.com for commentary. See: http://molcyt.org/2012/11/29/superdomestication-feed- forward-breeding-and-climate-proofing-crops/

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