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Bs2081 Heslop-Harrison Summary Lecture Ecology and Biodiversity - Agricultural Systems

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BS2081 Ecology and Biodiversity …

BS2081 Ecology and Biodiversity
Summary Lecture

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  • 1. BS2081 Ecology and Biodiversity Pat Heslop-Harrison University of Leicester, UK phh4@le.ac.uk www.molcyt.com UserID/PW „visitor‟ Twitter: pathh1 – cytogenomics.wordpress.com20/02/2013 1
  • 2. Flip – teaching : Wiki “Flip teaching is a form of blended learning which encompasses any use of technology to leverage the learning in a classroom, so a teacher can spend more time interacting with students instead of lecturing. This is most commonly being done using teacher-created videos that students view outside of class time.” 2
  • 3. Biodiversity What is biodiversity?20/02/2013 3
  • 4. Rio de Janeiro Conference in June 1992Defined biological diversity as “the variability among living organisms from all sources including, among other things, terrestrial, marine, and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part: this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems.” 4
  • 5. Biodiversity Agriculture brings in new species and new genotypes „Biodiversity‟ includes weeds, pests, vectors, predators20/02/2013 5
  • 6. Domesticated species What are domesticated species?20/02/2013 6
  • 7. What are domesticated species?Those where people control theirreproduction and nutritionMany alternatives – People control their access to nutrition/space – People have selected the variety – They are different from wild species – They would die out in the wild – Species useful to humans – Those with molecular signatures of selection/bottlenecks 20/02/2013 7
  • 8. Domesticated species What? Mammals Plants Other species –Fungi, Insects –Fish, Molluscs20/02/2013 –Birds 8
  • 9. Are there many candidates?380,000 plants4,629 mammals9,200 birds10,000,000 insectsBut only 200 plants, 15 mammals, 5 birds and 2 insects are domesticated! 9
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  • 15. How? The biological changes (others think of the anthropology)Animals and plants – Not „fussy‟ for diet, soil, climate – Control reproduction • Fast and fertile – Fast growing – Doesn‟t die – Thrives in monoculture – Not aggressive/unpleasant 15
  • 16. The first steps to domesticationBeing worthwhile to grow – Can propagate: Seeds germinate, eggs hatch, young produced – Can harvest: Seeds not dispersed/can catch, doesn‟t rot, don‟t die – Reasonably persistent (but the odd extinction does not matter) – Determinate growth / uniform ripening – Large yield - seed/fruits/meat/milk 16
  • 17. Suite ofplant domestication traitsSeed dispersal – no!Seed dormancy – yes then no!Large harvested parts – Gigantism – High proportion usefulDeterminate/synchronized growthEdible and tasty 17
  • 18. ExamplesWheatTomatoCattlePigshttp://www.els.net/WileyCDA/ 18
  • 19. Tinyurl.com/domesthttp://www.le.ac.uk/biology/phh4/p ublic/PHH_AltmanHasegawa_ch001. pdf 19
  • 20. 20
  • 21. S. Banga – Punjab Agricultural Universityfirst determinate / terminal floweringBrassica juncea / B. napus lines Feb 2012 21
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  • 24. When did domestication start? About 8,000 years before present Plants and animals In context: Humans 6,000,000 years since divergence from apes or 50,000 years since recognizably20/02/2013 „modern‟ 24
  • 25. Why did domestication start? (Not Archaeology and Anthropology!) Hunter-gatherer no longer sustainable Over-exploitation? Habitat destruction/extinction? Population growth? Climate change? Food stability? Diet change? sf20/02/2013 25
  • 26. Where?After Diamond 2002
  • 27. Domesticated species What? How? When? Why? Where?20/02/2013 27
  • 28. 28
  • 29. NASA The Blue MarbleApollo 17 7 Dec 1972
  • 30. Ecosystems anchor slide Largely – Self-organizing – Self-maintained – Cycling – Defined scope – cf Household – Aircraft – 30
  • 31. EcosystemsLiving components – Plants and cyanobacteria (primary producers) – Bacteria, fungi, animalsInteracting with abiotic components – Light – Water – Wind, soil, nutrients, toxins, gasses ...Recognizable homogeneity in one ecosystem 31
  • 32. Rainfall Distribution mm/yr 32
  • 33. EcosystemsRecognizing – Inputs – Outputs – Networks / webs of organisms – Cycles – Scales – Functions 33
  • 34. Inputs – Light – Heat – Water – Gasses – Nutrients 34
  • 35. 50% of the worlds protein needs are derived from atmospheric nitrogen fixed by the Haber-Bosch process and its successors.Global consumption of fertilizer (chemically fixed nitrogen) 80 million tonnes<<200 million tonnes fixed naturally
  • 36. Outputs – Light – Heat – Water – Gasses– Nutrients 36
  • 37. OutputsEcosystemServicesWater, gasses,nutrients”nature‟s services, like flood control, waterfiltration, waste assimilation” 37
  • 38. Dynamic processes: turn-over Outputs – Limestone 38– Made by marine organisms, formation and stability affected by pH and temperature
  • 39. Inputs - Biotic – Diseases – New organisms • Aliens/invasives – New genes and genotypes of existing organisms 39
  • 40. Outputs – Light – Heat– Ecosystem services – Chemical energy – Long term storage Required and valued 40
  • 41. Biotic Inputs – New genes – New species • Diseases • Alien speciesAbiotic inputs – Irrigation – „Salt‟ (NaCl) – Nitrogen – Phosphorous 41
  • 42. Water hyacinth – Eichornia: an invasive alienplant from South America, fills water courses (asurface habitat not used by any native species)in Asia and Africa 42
  • 43. Argenome mexicana: a goat-proof plant from Mexcio introduced and successful in Africa 43
  • 44. 44
  • 45. Occasional ‘extreme inputs’:Limiting composition of ecosystemsmore than ‘mean input’ - Robustness 45
  • 46. 46
  • 47. 47
  • 48. Anhalt, Barth, HHEuphytica 2009 Theor App Gen
  • 49. Light in ecosystems Heat Information Energy Quantity Quality Direction PeriodicityPhotosynthesis Control of development
  • 50. Threats to sustainability: no different for 10,000 yearsHabitat destructionClimate change (abiotic stresses)Diseases (biotic stresses)Changes in what people wantMORE outputs neededMORE stability in outputs from less stable inputs / poorer environments
  • 51. 51
  • 52. How to exploit models Increased sustainability Increased value Genetic improvement Robustness („food security‟) Benefits to all stakeholders: Breeders, Farmers, Processors, Retailers, Consumers, Citizens 53
  • 53. 50 years of plant breeding progress 4 GM maize Maize Genetics3.5 3 Rice2.5 Agronomy Wheat 2 Human1.5 Area 10.5 0 1961 1970 1980 1990 2000 2007
  • 54. UK Wheat 1948-2007 52,909 data points, 308 varietiesFrom Ian Mackay, NIAB, UK. 2009. Re-analyses of historical series ofvariety trials: lessons from the past and opportunities for the future. SCRI
  • 55. Conventional BreedingCross the best with the best and hope for something better SuperdomesticationDecide what is wanted and then plan how to get it – Variety crosses – Mutations – Hybrids (sexual or cell-fusion) – Genepool – Transformation
  • 56. Economic growthSeparate into increases in inputs (resources, labour and capital) and technical progress90% of the growth in US output per worker is attributable to technical progress Robert Solow – Economist
  • 57. Market Demand “MORE”Food production volume – No possibility of market collapse – Only slow market increase – Reduced post-harvest loss – Some crops gain/hit by global trends
  • 58. InputsBetter genetically – Harvest more – Stress resistant (Disease = biotic and environment – abiotic)Higher – Weed control improving for 8000 yearsLower – Production loss less than cost decrease – Better agronomy (cropping cycles etc.)
  • 59. Needs from Stochastic Models of Ecosystems Outputs Inputs Ecosystem – Light services – Heat – Chemical – Water energy – Gasses– Long term – Nutrients storage 61
  • 60. The major crops Will not be displaced Continue to need 1 to 1.5% year-on- year productivity increase Increased sustainability essential Major breeding targets – Post-harvest losses – Water use – Disease resistance – Quality62
  • 61. Where do thesegenes come from? 63
  • 62. Other cultivarsLandracesWild and cultivated relativesOther speciesMutation breedingSynthetic biology64
  • 63. Conventional BreedingCross the best with the best and hope for something better SuperdomesticationDecide what is wanted and then plan how to get it - variety crosses - mutations - hybrids (sexual or cell-fusion) - genepool - transformation
  • 64. Exploiting novel germplasmOptimistic for improved crops from novel germplasmBenefits for people of developed and developing countriesMajor role for national and international governmental breedingMajor role for private-sector local, national and multi-national66
  • 65. United Nations Millennium Development Goals-MDGs • Goal 1 – Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger • Goal 2 – Achieve universal primary education • Goal 3 – Promote gender equity and empower women • Goal 4 – Reduce child mortality • Goal 5 – Improve maternal health • Goal 6- Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases • Goal 7 - Ensure environmental sustainability • Goal 8 - Develop a global
  • 66. 50 years of plant breeding progress
  • 67. 50 years of plant breeding progress 43.5 Maize 3 Rice2.5 Wheat 2 Human1.5 Area 10.5 0 1961 1970 1980 1990 2000 2007
  • 68. 50 years of plant breeding progress GM 4 maize Maize Genetics3.5 3 Rice2.5 Agronomy Wheat 2 Human1.5 Area 10.5 0 1961 1970 1980 1990 2000 2007
  • 69. Why exploit novel germplasm? Increased sustainability Increased value Uses genes outside the conventional genepool Benefits to all stakeholders: Breeders, Farmers, Processors, Retailers, Consumers, Citizens in developed and developing countries and to all members of society. 74
  • 70. Conventional BreedingCross the best with the best and hope for something better
  • 71. New crops The additions to the FAO list – Triticale (Genome engineering) – Kiwi fruit (High value niche) – Jojoba (New product) – Popcorn is split (High value)76
  • 72. Farming – the seven Fs • Food (people) • Feed (animals) • Fuel (biomass and liquid) • Flowers (ornamental and horticulture) • Fibres & chemicals • Construction (timber) • Products (wood, „plastics‟) • Fibres (paper, clothing) • Fun – Recreational/Environmental • Golf courses, horses, walking etc. • Environmental - Water catchments, Biodiversity, Buffers, Carbon capture, Security • Pharmaceuticals
  • 73. Nothing special about crop genomes?Crop Genome size 2n Ploidy FoodRice 400 Mb 24 2 3x endospermWheat 17,000 Mbp 42 6 3x endospermMaize 950 Mbp 10 4 (palaeo-tetraploid) 3x endospermRapeseed B. 1125 Mbp 38 4 Cotyledon oil/proteinnapusSugar beet 758 Mbp 18 2 Modified rootCassava 770 Mbp 36 2 TuberSoybean 1,100 Mbp 40 4 Seed cotyledonOil palm 3,400 Mbp 32 2 Fruit mesocarpBanana 500 Mbp 33 3 Fruit mesocarp Heslop-Harrison & Schwarzacher 2012. Genetics and genomics of crop domestication. In Altman & Hasegawa Plant Biotech & Agriculture. 10.1016/B978- 0-12-381466-1.00001-8 Tinyurl.com/domest
  • 74. Lolium Biomass productionSusanne Barth, Ulrike Anhalt, Celine Tomaszewski
  • 75. Size andlocation ofchromosomeregions fromradish(Raphanussativus)carrying thefertilityrestorerRfk1 geneand transferto springturnip rape(Brassicarapa)
  • 76. Chromosomeand genomeengineeringCell fusionhybrid oftwo4x tetraploidtobaccospecies
  • 77. Nicotianahybrid4x + 4xcell fusionsEach of 4chromosomesets hasdistinctiverepetitiveDNA whenprobed withgenomic DNAPatel et alAnn Bot 2011
  • 78. Exploiting novel germplasmSuperdomestication• Targeted breeding and transgenic strategies• Increase in high value niche crops84
  • 79. Market Demand “MORE”Food production volume – No possibility of market collapse – Only slow market increase – Reduced post-harvest loss – Some crops gain/hit by global trends
  • 80. Market demand “MORE” Food (people) Feed (animals) - Major driver of volumeEnormous increase in pigs and poultryIncreases in farmed fishSmaller changes in cattle… animals with the same diet as us are increasing… to feed a person meat means the farmer sells 2½ to 11 times more grain than in the person eats the grain
  • 81. InputsBetter genetically – Harvest more – Stress resistant (Disease = biotic and environment – abiotic)Higher – Weed control improving for 8000 yearsLower – Production loss less than cost decrease – Better agronomy (cropping cycles etc.)
  • 82. Better stress resistance: – From the genepool – From engineering genes – Existing crops will be the major food sourcesNew crops – Some will become important – Many niche crops will make money
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  • 89. 96
  • 90. 97
  • 91. Inheritance of Chromosome 5DAegilops ventricosa × Triticum persicum Ac.1510DDNN AABB ABDN AABBDDNN × Marne AABBDD VPM1×Hobbit Dwarf A × CWW1176-4Virtue Rendezvous {Kraka × (Huntsman × × Fruhgold)} dpTa1 pSc119.2 Genomic Ae.ventricosa Piko 96ST61
  • 92. Eyespot (fungus Pseudocercosporella) resistance from Aegilops ventricosa introduced to wheat by chromosome engineeringMany diseases where all varieties are highly susceptibleAlien variation can be found and used7Host and non-host
  • 93. Crop standingLodging in cerealsCrop fallen
  • 94. Rules for successfuldomesticationThere aren‟t any!Crops come from anywhereThey might be grown anywherePolyploids and diploids (big genomes- small genomes, many chromosomes- few chromosomes)Seeds, stems, tubers, fruits, leaves
  • 95. 55% of the worlds protein needs are derived from atmospheric nitrogen fixed by the Haber-Bosch process and its successors.Global consumption of fertilizer (chemically fixed nitrogen) 80 million tonnes<<200 million tonnes fixed naturally
  • 96. What have farmers done?Over the last 150 years, 1.5% reduction in production costs per year similar across cereals, fruits, milk, meat … coal, iron With increased quality and security Remarkable total of 10-fold reduction in costs
  • 97. What have farmers done? Over the last 4500 years: Long-term „effort‟ reduction: 4500 years ago, getting food was full-time job for everyone = 365*12 = 4380 hr/yr/person (Minimal towns, few wars, few monuments, few records: all these need time-out from farming!) Now: In Europe and North America, 2% of the population are farmers = 0.02*8*300 = 48 hr/yr/person spent farming 0.1% per year cumulative reduction
  • 98. Do we need change?Do we need faster change? Crop varieties -High yield -High quality and safe -Easy to grow agronomically -Disease resistant -Insect/nematode resistant -Efficient water use -Secure, stable production -Environmentally friendly -Not invasive
  • 99. Genomics …The genepool has the diversity to address these challenges …New methods to exploit and characterize let use make better and sustainable use of the genepool
  • 100. 108
  • 101. http://blog.ecoagriculture.org/2012/02/29/pac 109
  • 102. 110