Ancient Civilizations

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Ancient Civilizations

  1. 1. ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS:THE AMERICAS<br />SOCIAL SCIENCE III<br />
  2. 2. ROUTINE<br />INTRODUCTION<br />LECTURE<br />WRAP-UP<br />ASSIGNMENT<br />
  3. 3. SIR ERIN DE LA CRUZ<br />Nickname: Erin/ Borlo<br />Interests: history, art, romance stories, traveling, classical music, and gamefowl breeding.<br />Dream: “Travel around the world and appreciate the beauty of places, peoples, and cultures.<br />
  4. 4. CIVILIZATION<br />Advanced cities<br />Centers of trade<br />Specialized workers<br />Ex. priests, weavers, metalworkers, merchants, scribes, government officials<br />Complex institutions<br />Formal governments, priests with religious and political power<br />Record Keeping<br />Ex. cuneiform tablets<br />Advanced Technology<br />Ex. wheel, plow, sailboat, bronze weapons<br />
  5. 5. Early Mesoamerican Civilizations<br />
  6. 6. Early Mesoamerican Civilizations<br />MESOAMERICA – Central Mexico to the northern part of Honduras.<br />OLMEC<br />ZAPOTEC<br />
  7. 7. OLMEC<br />First known civilization builders in the Americas.<br />Known to be the MOTHER CULTURE<br />Flourished from 1200BC to 400BC along the GULF COAST OF MEXICO (modern day Veracruz and Tabasco).<br />
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  9. 9. Veracruz y Tabasco<br />Thick Forests<br />Hot, humid<br />Severe flooding<br />Salt, tar, and clay<br />Wood and rubber<br />Stones<br />Rivers<br />Fertile land<br />
  10. 10. OLMEC<br />SAN LORENZO<br />LA VENTA<br />GREAT PYRAMID<br />Artifacts – that led to a conclusion that the Olmec prayed a variety of Nature Gods.<br />JAGUAR WORSHIP<br />Home to a small ruling class of priests and nobles<br />Earthen mounds, courtyards, and pyramids<br />Large stone monuments, sculpted heads<br />
  11. 11. JAGUAR WORSHIP<br />
  12. 12. Interesting Fact:<br />Villagers in Acatlan, Mexico put on jaguar masks and stage mock combats and dances in the hope that the jaguar will shed its own blood in the form of rain, to water the fields. <br />
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  14. 14. Decline of the Olmec<br />Outside villagers caused the destruction.<br />San Lorenzo destroyed around 900 BC<br />La Venta fallen around 400 BC.<br />
  15. 15. MAYA <br />Centered in the tropical lowlands of what is now Guatemala.<br />Golden Age: 6th Century AD<br />Excelled at agriculture, pottery, hieroglyph, writing, calendar making, and mathematics<br />Impressive architecture and symbolic artwork<br />
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  17. 17. Mayan Civilization<br />EARLY MAYANS<br />Agricultural (corn, beans, squash, cassava)<br />Derived a number of religious and cultural traits from the Olmec<br />Number system, calendar, pyramid, city construction, inscribing of stone monuments<br />Cities of Stones (Classic Maya)<br />The Golden Age of the Maya Empire<br />40 cities including Tikal, Copan, Uaxactun, Bonampak, Dos Pilas, Calakmul, Palenque, Rio Bec.<br />Plazas, palaces, temples, pyramids.<br />Playing the ball games that were ritually and politically significant to Maya culture<br />Slash and burn<br />Worshipped various gods related to nature. <br />
  18. 18. MAYA SOCIETY<br />KINGS (kuhulajaw/ holy lords)<br />Claim: related to the gods<br />Followed a hereditary succession<br />Thought as mediators between the gods and the people on earth. Performed elaborate religious ceremonies and rituals so important to the Mayan culture.<br />
  19. 19. GREAT ARTISTS (and thinkers) OF MESOAMERICA<br />Temples and palaces in a stepped pyramid shape.<br />Made significant advances in mathematics and astronomy, including the use of zero and the development of a complex calendar system based on 365 days. <br />
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  25. 25. MYSTERIOUS DECLINE<br />End of the 9th century- mysterious thing happened in Mayan Civilization. <br />One by one classic cities were abandoned.<br />Exhausted the environment<br />Constant warfare<br />drought<br />
  26. 26. Beginnings of the Aztec Empire<br />Valley of Mexico<br />Site of the greatest empire of Mesoamerica (Aztec).<br />Had several large, shallow lakes at its center<br />Accessible resources<br />Fertile soil<br />TEOTIHUACAN<br />TOLTECS<br />
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  28. 28. TEOTIHUACAN<br />Known as the City of the Gods.<br />First major civilization in Central Mexico.<br />In 6th century AD, population grew to as many as 125,000 people.<br />Pyramid of the Sun<br />Center of a thriving trade<br />Obsidian – hard, glassy green or black rock used in making razor sharp weapons.<br />
  29. 29. Did Teotihuacans<br />Conquer its neighbors – <br />Try to create an empire –<br />Influence Mesoamerica with its art styles and religious beliefs- <br />
  30. 30. TOLTECS TAKE OVER<br />Ruled over Central Mexico. <br />Made TULA its capital.<br />Built pyramids and temples and carved tall pillars in the shape of armed warriors.<br />Opposite of Teotihuacan.<br />EXTREMELY WARLIKE PEOPLE<br />Worshipped a fierce War God who demanded blood and human sacrifice from his followers.<br />
  31. 31. Topiltzin and Quetzalcoatl<br />Topiltzin- King of Peace<br />Quetzalcoatl- The Feathered Serpent known as the God of Peace.<br />
  32. 32. AZTECS<br />Aztecs arrived in Central Mexico in 1200s.<br />They were formerly known as MEXICA from the deserts of North Mexico.<br />Once soldiers for hire to local rulers.<br />
  33. 33. HUITZILOPOCHTLI (“,)<br />Aztec Sun God<br />Told Aztecs to found a city of their own.<br />They must “look for a place where an eagle perched on a cactus, holding a snake in its mouth.”<br />Were they able to find one? <br />
  34. 34. HUITZILOPOCHTLI (“,)<br />Aztec Sun God<br />Told Aztecs to found a city of their own.<br />They must “look for a place where an eagle perched on a cactus, holding a snake in its mouth.”<br />Were they able to find one? <br />
  35. 35. AZTECS<br />Formed alliances (city-states merging together like Texcoco and Tlacopan)<br />Power was based on MILITARY CONQUESTS and TRIBUTE from conquered people.<br />Let local rulers govern their own regions.<br />Tribute: GOLD, MAIZE, CACAO, COTTON, JADE<br />What if they fail to give tributes?<br />
  36. 36. AZTEC SOCIETY<br />EMPEROR<br />NOBLES<br />COMMONERS<br />SLAVES<br />
  37. 37. TENOCHTITLAN<br />1500s it became an extraordinary urban center.<br />Palaces, temples, markets, and residential districts were connected by streets and avenues.<br />Canals divided the city.<br />Aqueducts funneled freshwater in from the mainland.<br />GREAT TEMPLE – main structure in the center of Tenochtitlan. Aztec’s religious center.<br />
  38. 38. AZTEC RELIGION<br />Religion played a vital role in Aztec Society<br />Designed elaborate public ceremonies to communicate and win the favors of the Gods (ex. Dramas, songs, dances)<br />HUMAN SACRIFICE FOR THE SUN GOD.<br />
  39. 39. MONTEZUMA and AZTEC DECLINE<br />Under Montezuma II, Aztec began to weaken<br />He demanded more tribute and sacrifice.<br />Tribute served as source of wealth and power.<br />Tribute provided prisoners for religious sacrifice.<br />
  40. 40. MESOAMERICA QUIZ<br />Give me 1 characteristic of a civilization.<br />Peru is part of the Mesoamerican region. Yes or no?<br />This Mesoamerican society flourished around Veracruz and Tabasco around 1200BC.<br />This society worshipped an animal that was perceived to be their God of Rain. What’s that animal?<br />Are Tikal, Palenque, and Chichen Itza part of the classic city-states of the Mayan civilization? Yes or no?<br />
  41. 41. 6. Did the Mayans create the first complex calendar system which was based on 365 days? Yes or no?<br />7. Give me 1 possible theory that caused the decline of the Mayan civilization.<br />8. They were the first major civilization in Central Mexico.<br />9. They were extremely warlike people and worshipped a fierce War God who demanded blood and human sacrifice from his followers.<br />10. Aztecs were formerly called as?<br />
  42. 42. 11. Quetzalcoatl was the Aztecs’s Sun God. Yes or no?<br />12. Huitzilopochtli was the Aztecs’s God of Peace. Yes or no?<br />13. Give me 1 group of people which comprises the Aztec nobility.<br />14. Did the Aztecs reach the Golden Age under the reign of Montezuma II? Yes or no?<br />15. Name this place that was built on the Lake Texcoco by the Aztecs.<br />

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