1. EDUCATION INSIGHTVolume 1 - No. 1 April 2001 ILLINOIS STATE BOARD OFEDUCATIONBullying: Bad Behavior Is Not Just Kids Being KidsBullying is many things. right to pick on people with no regard The best thing is for kids to come for their feelings. Bullying is not new, together to say what is too much,Taunts. Insults. Teasing. Aggression. nor are the efforts to address it. said Dr. Richard Curwin, author ofExclusion. Humiliation. Alienation. Discipline With Dignity amongHarassment. Intimidation. Bad But what exactly constitutes bullying several books about childhoodbehavior repeated with the intent to versus kids being kids-type behavior.hurt someone. aggressive behavior? (Bullying) is an individual decision.Bullying is meanness for meanness Bullying, experts say, is much more The minute you define somethingsake. than a bigger person physically legally, people will start addressing assaulting someone smaller. It the rule, rather than the behavior, comes down to one question, said he said.It comes down to one question: Peter Blauvelt, president of theWhat makes (students) afraid or National Alliance for Safe Schools. So Why Do They Do It?uncomfortable? What makes (students) afraid or uncomfortable? Why kids bully is almost as hard to Peter Blauvelt, President, define as the behavior itself. National Alliance for Safe Schools. Dr. John Hoover agrees. Like sexual harassment, bullying will always be Some children bully because they best defined subjectively, said like the rewards aggression canContrary to popular opinion, though, Hoover, also a renowned expert on bring; lack compassion for the victim;bullying is not or at least it doesnt teaching and learning. His latest were once victims themselves; lackhave to be inevitable. But before the book is titled Teasing and guilt; or believe that the victimproblem can be solved, though, it Harassment: The Frames and Scripts started the conflict and deserves themust first be understood. Approach for Parents and Teachers. abuse, according to the Jackson County (Illinois) Healthy Department,Bullying can inflict deep emotional As with harassment, the standard which has provided bullying trainingwounds that may never heal. And must be what a reasonable child to 11 area schools through its four-those open wounds may cause the considers bullying to be, Hoover said. year-old Bullying Preventionvictims to become bullies themselves However, bullying, unlike the Program.and hurt others a dangerous circle occasional playground scuffle, tendsthat some say has contributed to some to be repeated and consistent The reason behind bullying may beof the recent, sometimes deadly behavior. even simpler and paradoxicallyviolence seen in schools nationwide. profound, suggested Dr. Allen In fact, the only behavior variable Mendler.That increased violence has focused thats more stable over time thanthe state and national political and aggression, is general intelligence, Mendler co-authored Disciplinemedia spotlights on the issue. Once Hoover said. With Dignity with Curwin, amongagain, people are talking about what many other works focusing on wayscauses kids to exhibit such antisocial Illinois does not specifically, legally for parents, educators andbehavior; its impact on its victims, the define bullying, said Karen professionals to help difficult youthlarger society and even on bullies Westbrook, director of program succeed.themselves; and how to curb it. development for Illinois Attorney General Jim Ryan. As do all people, bullies want to haveWhat Is Bullying? some control, some influence over Indeed, it is difficult perhaps even ill the world around them. But, MendlerBehavioral experts nationwide have advised to define bullying much said, theres something missing insidelong recognized that bullying is a beyond a range of behaviors that does that individual that wont let themsymptom of a culture that says its all physical or psychological harm to influence the world in a more positive, proactive way. 1 someone else.
2. What If The consequences of such a life are According to Hoover, bullies are also also long-term. By age 24, five times more likely to end up withBullying Is Ignored? 47 percent (of bullies) had three or a serious criminal record by the ageLong-term studies of bullying have more court convictions. Additionally, of 30.shown that bullies do not learn such they became underachievers andbehavior randomly. Rather, in all dropouts, and they tended to become Conversely, early, firm and consistentlikelihood, they did not experience a abusive parents and partners, education and intervention can havefulfilling and rewarding life . Blauvelt Blauvelt wrote. significant positive results.wrote in a document title Bullying: AProblem That Refuses To Go Away. What Can Be Done? The most effective solution to bullying, experts say, is to change the Legal and Policy Perspectives on Bullying atmosphere around the action. The first and perhaps most important step to ending bullying is to make Children must be told early and often, clear that it wont be allowed. clearly and consistently that such behavior will not be tolerated, is not Schools and districts must set clear policies forbidding threatening and acceptable and will in the long term intimidating behavior and peer harassment, said Teri Engler, an attorney do more harm than any short-term with the Oak Brook firm of Sraga and Engler. She has represented school good it might seem to produce, the districts for 15 of her nearly 20 years in law and has taught in both the experts agree. schools of law and education at Loyola University. Whats more, society must stop Such policies should also define as specifically as possible the kind of defending and accepting bullying as behavior that will not be allowed, without limiting the definition to just kids being kids. Just because it has the specified examples, she said. always been this way, doesnt mean that it always has to be. School districts must be careful and should seek legal counsel, Engler cautioned, so that such policies are not unduly vague or overly broad Bullying is the absolute key to and compromise students 1st or 14th Amendment rights. community-wide violence prevention programs, Hoover said. Any Adults should also seek out and rely on witnesses as much as possible to program that doesnt address bullying avoid the he-said, she-said arguments that can undermine effective isnt worth anything. discipline, she said. Schools Are Key This tactical step is particularly important because school people often ignore bullying and they claim they dont see it, said Peter Blauvelt, Of course schools play a critical role president of the National Alliance for Safe Schools. That has got to stop. in the bullying problem if only because they house children for six School officials should refer criminal behavior to the appropriate law hours, five days a week. enforcement entities while concurrently handling the situation itself as an internal discipline procedure, Engler said. Dont we wish that social problem- solving skills were taught in the Such an approach will both address the immediate danger, and open the home? Hoover said. In times when door to a fuller examination of school and/or district policy, the learning and social relationships were prescribed, safety environment, need for intervention and similar broader concerns, we didnt have these kinds of Engler said. problems. And, if it seems social services are needed to help deal with a students Schools do need to have a policy that behavior, the students parents should be involved at every step, Engler says we accept peoples differences said, particularly if there is some thought that a formal special education and wont tolerate disrespect or assessment may be in order. intolerance, Mendler said. If parents refuse to be involved, school officials can still seek an Perhaps even more important than administrative due process hearing to see if the child has special education policy, though, is perception. issues that might explain his or her behavior and make him or her eligible Children must understand and have for special education assistance, Engler said. faith in their schools policies and systems of support. 2 2
3. members, professionals and studentsBullying is the absolute key to are involved at every turn, she said. Learning Standards Promotecommunity-wide violence prevention Anti-bullying Behaviorprograms. Any program that doesnt As part of an 11-component plan,address bullying isnt worth anything. Jackson County officials help schools Illinois schools already have a good develop strategic plans, including a tool to help deal with bullying. Dr. John Hoover, author, vision and a time line; provide The Illinois Learning Standards for Teasing and Harassment: training and professional physical development and health The Frames and Scripts Approach development; conduct climate include many of the communications for Parents and Teachers. surveys to identify key places and and relationship skills that experts times when bullying is likely to occur, say kids need to learn to deal effec- and develop plans to address those tively with each other. situations; and train students toChildren need to know that adults will For example, Learning Standard develop healthy interpersonalintervene every time bullying is even #24A calls for students to demon- relationship skills.suspected, Mendler said. Doing so strate procedures for communicatingmay not immediately stop the bad in positive ways, resolving differ- The only problem so far has beenbehavior, but it will reaffirm to victims ences and preventing conflict. limited resources for the schools. Itthat they have recourse and that takes time to do this program, Bailey According to Benchmark 24.A.1a,people do care about them. said. Some schools dont have either early elementary students should be the people or the time to fully commit able to differentiate between posi-Many school employees - including to the program. tive and negative behaviors, whileteachers - wrongly think that onlyadministrators can intervene, Blauvelt Benchmark 24.A.2a says that late But even those schools only partially elementary-age children should besaid. Such thinking is dangerous participating are reporting good able to identify causes and conse-because it tells the bully that the results, she said. quences of conflict among youth.behavior is at least allowed if notcondoned. Middle school/junior high students Proof Is in the Numbers should be able to demonstrateIts everyones responsibility, At Carbondales Giant City methods for addressing interpersonalBlauvelt said. We have to say Elementary School District 130 the differences without harm (e.g. avoid-(bullying) is just not tolerated here. number of bullying-related ance, compromise, cooperation), suspensions has dropped from six last according to Benchmark 24.A.3b.Intervention, Education year to only one so far this year, said Such skills and knowledge must beCan Work school social worker Jan Farmer. taught, required and enforced as soon as children enter school, said Office discipline referrals for bullying National Alliance for Safe SchoolsSurveys given to students before and have also tumbled from more than President Peter Blauvelt. Dont waitafter their schools engaged in Jackson 100 last year to nine this year, Farmer for junior high school to start talkingCountys Bullying Prevention said. about this problem, he said, becauseProgram (BPP) show that the numberof incidents of bullying have dropped bullies are born early.measurably, said Jackson County Kids want the safe environment, they Similarly, State Goal 21 focuses onDirector of Health Education Angie want the discipline, they want to know developing team-building skills byBailey. Students understanding and we care. working with others through physi-perception of bullying has increased. cal activity. However, as any teacher Debbie Kreutztrager, Principal, knows, physical activity no matterThe whole program is about Lincoln Elementary School, how well organized or supervised changing the whole school Murphysboro can open the door to inappropriateenvironment so that everyone is on behavior, ostracism and even vio-the same page, Bailey said. lence.Jackson County piloted its program in Giant City has embraced the BPP and Learning Standard 21.B.1 requiresone school in the 1997-98 school expanded on its principles, she said. early elementary students to workyear, then expanded it to 10 other cooperatively with another to ac-schools the following year. It has implemented numerous policy complish an assigned task. Similar and staffing changes supporting both standards for older students focusThe program helps schools develop a the BPP and the experts such cooperation skills on bothplan that fits into their existing school recommendations, including hiring a competitive and non-competitivemanagement or discipline structure, person certified in conflict resolution tasks.Bailey said. Parents, community to be in charge of recess. The most 3 3
4. important thing, though, is that she is Sample Policy from Illinois Association of School Boards - February 2001well regarded by the students,Farmer said.The school also created a committee Studentscalled PRIDE (People Respecting Administrative Procedure Harassment of Students ProhibitedIndividual Differences in Everyone)that sponsors and facilitates Actor Actionnumerous student recognitionactivities. The BPP encourages Building Distribute and publicize Board policy 7:20, Harassment ofschools to give their programs a Principal or Students Prohibited, and Board policy 2:260, Uniformmeaningful name. Designee Grievance Procedure using various methods, including annually publishing them in the student and staff handbooks.The BPPs methods have proveneffective even with those schools Building Take measures to prevent harassment of students,new to the system. Principal or including: 1 Designee 1. Conducting periodic harassment awareness trainingDebra K. Kreutztrager, the first-year for all school staff, including administrators, teachers,principal at Lincoln Elementary and guidance counselors;School in Murphysboro, said her new 2. Conducting periodic age-appropriate harassmentschools diverse population awareness training for students;generated a lot of discipline problems 3. Establishing discussion groups in which students canat the start of this school year. discuss what constitutes harassment and how to respond to it in the school setting;People didnt have a common 4. Surveying students to find out whether harassment isdefinition of bullying, an occurring at the school;understanding of its impact or tactics 5. Conducting periodic harassment awareness trainingto address it. But, after only a few for parent(s)/guardian(s); andmonths following BPPs guidelines, 6. Working with parent(s)/guardian(s) and students tobullying and other discipline issues develop and implement age-appropriate, effectivehave died down considerably, measures for addressing harassment.she said. Nondiscrimi- Take measures to thoroughly and promptly investigate nation allegations of harassment, including:Dont we wish that social problem- Coordinatorsolving skills were taught in the 1. Distributing Board policy 2:260, Uniform Grievance or Grievancehome? Hoover said. In times when Procedure, to any person upon request; Complaintsocial relationships were prescribed, 2. Following Board policy 2:260, Uniform Grievance Managerwe didnt have these kinds of Procedure;problems. 3. Notifying a students parent(s)/guardian(s) that they may attend any investigatory meetings in which their Dr. John Hoover child is present; and 4. Keeping a complaining parent(s)/guardian(s) informed of any investigations progress.In the first quarter this school year, 21percent of Lincolns student body was All District Shall comply with the child abuse reporting laws.sent to the principals office for Staff Members Keep the harassment investigations progress, as well asdiscipline problems, Kreutztrager students oral or written statements, confidential, exceptsaid. The figure dropped to 12 that the Superintendent will be kept informed of thepercent in the second quarter and 10 investigations progress.percent in the third.Kids want the safe environment, 1 These are suggestions are based on the U.S. Department of Educations pamphlet,they want the discipline, they want to Sexual Harassment: Its Not Academic. The pamphlet also states:know we care, Kreutztrager said. ¨ Adoption of strong preventive measures is often the best way to confront the serious problem of sexual harassment. In addition, the steps described above may also be useful in responding to sexual harassment once it has occurred to ensure that it does not happen again. Please review this policy with your school 4 board attorney before adoption.
5. Sample Policy from Illinois Association of School Boards - May 2000 StudentsHarassment of Students ProhibitedNo person, including a District employee or agent, or student, shall harass or intimidate another student based upon astudents sex, color, race, religion, creed, ancestry, national origin, physical or mental disability, sexual orientation, or otherprotected group status. The District will not tolerate harassing or intimidating conduct, whether verbal, physical, or visual,that affects tangible benefits of education, that unreasonably interferes with a students educational performance, or thatcreates an intimidating, hostile, or offensive educational environment. Examples of prohibited conduct include name-calling,using derogatory slurs, or wearing or possessing items depicting or implying hatred or prejudice of one of the characteristicsstated above. 1Complaints of harassment or intimidation are handled according to the provisions on sexual harassment below. TheSuperintendent shall use reasonable measures to inform staff members and students that the District will not tolerateharassment, such as by including this policy in the appropriate handbooks.Sexual Harassment ProhibitedSexual harassment of students is prohibited. 2 Any person, including a district employee or agent, or student, engages insexual harassment whenever he or she makes sexual advances, requests sexual favors, and engages in other verbal orphysical conduct of a sexual or sex-based nature, imposed on the basis of sex, that: 1. denies or limits the provision of educational aid, benefits, services, or treatment; or that makes such conduct a condition of a students academic status; or 2. has the purpose or effect of: a. substantially interfering with a students educational environment; b. creating an intimidating, hostile, or offensive educational environment; c. depriving a student of educational aid, benefits, services, or treatment; or d. making submission to or rejection of such conduct the basis for academic decisions affecting a student.The terms intimidating, hostile, and offensive include conduct that has the effect of humiliation, embarrassment, ordiscomfort. Examples of sexual harassment include touching, crude jokes or pictures, discussions of sexual experiences,teasing related to sexual characteristics, and spreading rumors related to a persons alleged sexual activities.Students who believe they are victims of sexual harassment or have witnessed sexual harassment, are encouraged to discussthe matter with the student Nondiscrimination Coordinator, Building Principal, Assistant Building Principal, Dean of Students,or a Complaint Manager. Students may choose to report to a person of the students same sex. Complaints will be keptconfidential to the extent possible given the need to investigate. Students who make good faith complaints will not bedisciplined.An allegation that one student was sexually harassed by another student shall be referred to the Building Principal, AssistantBuilding Principal, or Dean of Students for appropriate action.The Superintendent shall insert into this policy the names, addresses, and telephone numbers of the Districts currentNondiscrimination Coordinator and Complaint Managers. 3 At least one of these individuals will be female, and at least onewill be male.Nondiscrimination Coordinator:NameAddressTelephone No.Complaint Managers:NameAddressTelephone No. 5
6. Sample Policy from Illinois Association of School Boards - May 2000 (Continued)The Superintendent shall use reasonable measures to inform staff members and students that the District will not tolerate sexualharassment, such as by including this policy in the appropriate handbooks. 4Any District employee who is determined, after an investigation, to have engaged in sexual harassment will be subject todisciplinary action up to and including discharge. Any District student who is determined, after an investigation, to haveengaged in sexual harassment will be subject to disciplinary action, including but not limited to, suspension and expulsionconsistent with the discipline policy. Any person making a knowingly false accusation regarding sexual harassment will likewisebe subject to disciplinary action up to and including discharge, with regard to employees, or suspension and expulsion, withregard to students.LEGAL REF.: Title IX of the Educational Amendments, 20 U.S.C. § 1681 et seq. 34 C.F.R. Part 106. 105 ILCS 5/10-22.5 and 5/27-1. 23 Ill. Admin. Code § 200.10 et seq. Davis v. Monroe County Board of Education, ___ U.S. ___ (1999). Franklin v. Gwinnett Co. Public Schools, 112 S.Ct. 1028 (1992). Gebser v. Lago Vista Independent School District, 118 S.Ct. 1989 (1998). West v. Derby Unified School District No. 260, 10th Cir. App, 3/21/2000.CROSS REF.: 2:260 (Uniform Grievance Procedure), 5:20 (Sexual Harassment), 7:10 (Equal Educational Opportunities) 1 This paragraph is optional. While hate speech is not specifically mentioned in this paragraph, any hate speech used to harass orintimidate is banned. Hate speech without accompanying misconduct may be prohibited in response to actual incidences when hate speechinterfered with the educational environment. West v. Derby Unified School District No. 260, 10th Cir. App, 3/21/2000. The followingaddition is based on Derby Unified School District; absent documentation of hate speech occurrences, this options inclusion will probablyviolate the First Amendment: District employees and students shall not at school, on school property, or at school activities, wear or have in their possession any material, either printed or in their own handwriting, that is divisive or creates ill will or hatred based on race, religion, or sexual orientation. (Examples: clothing, articles, material, publications or any item that denotes Ku Klux Klan, Aryan Nation-White Supremacy, Black Power, Neo-nazi, or any other hate group. This list is not intended to be all-inclusive.) Note that sexual orientation is the only included characteristic that is not a protected status, except in Cook County. Accordingly,it may be eliminated from this policy in non-Cook County districts. 2 Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex in any educational program or activityreceiving federal financial assistance (42 U.S.C. § 2000h). The sample policys definition of sexual harassment does not distinguish betweenwelcome and unwelcome behaviors - each is prohibited if it has a result described in sub-paragraph 1 or 2. See Mary M. v. North LawrenceCommunity School Corp., 131 F.3d 1220 (7th Cir. 1997) (An eighth grade student did not need to show that a school employees sexualadvances were unwelcome in order to prove sexual harassment.). School districts are liable for damage awards for an employees sexual harassment of a student in limited situations. Liability occursonly when a district official who, at a minimum, has authority to institute corrective action, has actual notice of and is deliberately indifferentto the employees misconduct. Gebser v. Lago Vista Independent School District, 118 S.Ct. 1989 (1998). Schools are liable in student-to-student sexual harassment cases when school agents are deliberately indifferent to sexual harassment, of which they have actual knowledge,that is so severe, pervasive, and objectively offensive that it can be said to deprive the victims of access to the educational opportunities orbenefits provided by the school. Davis v. Monroe County Board of Education, ___ U.S. ___ (1999). 3 Title IX regulations require districts to identify the person, address, and telephone number of the individual responsible forcoordinating the districts compliance efforts. 4 In addition to notifying students of the Uniform Grievance Procedure, a district must notify them of the person(s) designated tocoordinate the districts compliance with Title IX (34 C.F.R. Part 106.8(a). A comprehensive student handbook can provide required notices,along with other important information to recipients. The handbook can be developed by the building principal, but should be reviewed andapproved by the superintendent and board. Please review this policy with your school board attorney before adoption. 6
7. Each and Every Amendment. The school had to pay $900,000 in damages to the student. Additional resources are available from the Illinois State Board ofStudent: Some Illinois districts have policies or Education by calling Dr. Christopher Koch at (312) 814-8498 or via email atSexual Orientation union contracts prohibiting firstname.lastname@example.org. ¨ discrimination based on sexualand School Policy orientation; however, in most instances students with differentCreating classroom environments sexual orientations are not specificallywhere all students can learn isessential to the mission of the Illinois mentioned. Such omissions hurt not only the gay, lesbian, or bisexual RESOURCESState Board of Education. Positive student, but potentially a muchattitudes and behaviors demonstrated broader group of individuals.by adults towards students with Research into harassment and Web Sitesdifferences are critical to creating safe violence towards individuals with The Internet includes many resourcesand nurturing environments for all different sexual orientation indicates to help schools and districts plan for,students. that students perceived to have address and respond to schoolAs administrators and educators we orientation differences are targeted violence, including bullying.have an obligation to challenge our nearly as often as those who actually Although we offer these web sites asown, as well as our colleagues, have such differences. Moreover, resources the State Board does notpreconceived notions about student environments that permit the necessarily endorse them or theirdifferences and to create school harassment of students with different content.environments where students with sexual orientations contribute tosuch differences are affirmed and harassment based on other These Illinois web sites may provenurtured. differences. particularly useful.Differences in sexual orientation, as In reflecting on the patterns of school gun violence from 1996-1999, it is Lee/Ogle County Regional Office ofwith those of race and gender, impact significant that six of the eight Education 47: Developed with ateaching and learning in a variety of perpetrators were regularly teased by Regional Safe Schools Professionalways. They become important when their peers--four of whom were Development/Technical Assistancea parent speaks to a principal or specifically called gay or more Grant, this web site has resources andteacher about their gay child; when homophobic epithets. materials including professionalwe overhear, and do nothing to deter, development providers andstudent comments demeaning Schools are not just places for established programs/presentationshomosexuals; or when a student and/ learning. Schools are places for the dealing with bullying, some of whichor a teacher approaches the principal transmission of culture, prejudices and are available to Regional Safe Schoolsabout starting a gay-straight alliance. myths. Recognizing behaviors that programs through a lending library.Tragically, anti-gay harassment has encourage or allow harassment is a The web page can be accessedbeen documented as a serious first step toward creating inclusive www.leeogle.org/rssp or through theproblem in a number of the nations school environments. Fostering an State Boards web page atschools and has been associated with environment of mutual respect where www.isbe.state.il.us/alps/rsspweb.htm.youth suicide and violence. We can differences can be affirmed andnot expect schools to be safe individuals can develop to their full Illinois Regional Offices of Educationenvironments if we withhold potential is a further step. Each step Online Safety Assessment: created toprotections from any student. requires careful planning, sound help schools determine what tools policies and thoughtful interventions they had in place and what they mightMany states, including Alaska, based on reason and research rather need to do to contemplate, address,California, Connecticut, Florida, than myths and fear. prevent and respond to schoolMassachusetts, Pennsylvania, Rhode Many resources are available to violence.Island, Utah, Vermont, and Wisconsin, districts and school boards struggling www.schoolsafetyonline.org/have adopted legislation orregulations prohibiting sexual with this issue from a number oforientation discrimination in professional associations including theelementary and secondary education. American Academy of Pediatrics; theInterest in such policies has increased American Psychological Association;markedly since 1996 when the 7th the National Association of SchoolU.S. Circuit Court of Appeals ruled Boards; Parents and Friends ofagainst a Wisconsin school district for Lesbians and Gays; the Gay, Lesbian,violating a students rights to equal and Straight Education Network; andprotection under the Fourteenth the National Education Association. 7
8. A quick Internet search under the termbullying will generate dozens more Bullying and Sexual Harassment in Two Conflictwebsites that may also help school Schools Resolution Videosofficials recognize and address http://www.cfchildren.org/bullying. Here are only a few: PUbully.html Now Available from ISBEThe Illinois Association of Chiefs of Bullying at School InformationPolice Guide for Preventing and http://www.scre.ac.uk/bully/ Illinois schools can now obtain twoResponding to School Violence video series through the State Boardwww.theiacp.org/pubinfo/pubs/ Bullying in SchoolsAre Short of Education that help studentspslc/svindex.htm Pupils at Risk? develop the knowledge, attitudes, http://www.findarticles.com/m0999/ skills and behavior to prevent, defuseEarly Warning, Timely Response: A 7235_320/61025574/p1/article.jhtml and resolve conflict.Guide To Safe Schools: www.ed.gov/offices/OSERS/OSEP/earlywrn.html Related Web Sites Getting Along contains seven, 15-minute programs targeted toThe Safe and Drug-Free Schools Centers for Disease Control (1998). students in pre-kindergarten throughProgram: Facts about violence among youth second grade.State Grants for Drug and Violence and violence in schools.Prevention Programs, and National www.cdc.gov Each program focuses on a cluster ofPrograms. conflicts from the daily experienceshttp://www.ed.gov/legislation/ESEA/ National Association of Elementary of children and examines the naturesec4011.html, and National Programs School principals of the conflicts by asking several http://www.naesp.org/whatsnew.html. basic analytical questions.http://www.ed.gov/legislation/ESEA/sec4121.html. National Association of Secondary The videos then demonstrate conflict School principals. resolution procedures and modelBullying.orgWhere You Are Not http://www.nassp.org. personal or social strategies forAlone dealing with conflicts. Childrenshttp://www.bullying.org/ National Education Association. Safe books and original songs related to Schools. each situation are woven into eachTake Action Against Bullying http://www.nea.org/issues/safescho. video.http://www.bullybeware.com/ National School Safety Center.: Working Together contains six,Bullying in SchoolsDocuments http://www.nssc1.org. 15-minute videos for students inhttp://www.uncg.edu/edu/ericcass/ grades 3 through 6. Programs in thisbullying/DOCS/tableoc.htm Parent Teacher Association. series mirror the design of the Community Violence Prevention. primary level series. The videosWhat Parents and Teachers Should http://www.pta.org/events/violprev. include segments that are appropriateKnow About Bullying for elementary aged students.http://www.accesseric.org:81/resources/parent/bullying.html Talking With Kids About Tough Issues. All programs are closed captioned for http://www.talkingwithkids.org. the hearing impaired and teacherInformation on Bullying for Parents guides accompany each series.and Teachershttp://www.lfcc.on.ca/bully.htm We noted a site dedicated to the issue of shyness, which contained an Illinois schools are invited to borrow informative essay about teasing. It is VHS tapes from the State Board ofMaine Project Against Bullying located at the following address: Education, make copies and send thehttp://lincoln.midcoast.com/~wps/ http://members.aol.com/cybernettr/ original tapes back to the Stateagainst/bullying.html shysite/assert.html Board. Illinois use rights have been /5.5.1stuttease.html purchased through 2007.Anti-Bullying Networkhttp://www.antibullying.net/ Tape requests should be directed through school or district library/ERIC DIGEST: Bullying in Schools media personnel, so all school staffhttp://ericps.crc.uiuc.edu/eece/pubs/ may have access to these materials.digests/1997/banks97.html8
9. Requests may be sent to: Dealing with Teasing The Bully-Free Classroom fax: 217-782-9324 From The Conflict Resolution Library Allan L. Beane e-mail: email@example.com Lisa K. Adams Free Spirit Publishing mail: Illinois State Board The Rosen Publishing Groups 400 First Ave N. Suite 616 of Education Powerkids Press29 E 21st St. New Minneapolis Minnesota, 55401-1724 Video Library C-021 York ISNB = 0-8239-5070-0 (612) 338-2068 100 N. First St. (1997) Springfield, IL 62777-0001 Dealing with Bullying Books for Children Hazledon/RosenBullying and Powerkids Press Adams, L. (1991). Dealing With Marianne Johnston29 E 21st St.Classroom Climate New York Teasing. New York. Rosen Publishing Group.Materials ISBN = 1-56838-266-9 (1996) Baynton, M. (1988). Jane and theBooks How to Handle Bullies, Teasers and dragon. Martinez, CA. Discovery. Berry, J. (1988). A childrens book Other Meanies: A Book That TakesRisk in Our Midst: Empowering about teasing: Help me Be good. the Nuisance Out of Name CallingTeenagers to Love the Unlovable Danbury CT. Grolier. and Other NonsenseBy Dr. Scott Larson with contributions Kate Cohen-Poseyby Dr. John Hoover Romain, T.(1997). Bullies are a pain Rainbow Books, Inc.Group Publishing in the brain. Minneapolis, MN. P.O. Box 430ISBN 0-7644-2248-0 $14.99 Free Spirit. Highland, City FL 33846-0430 (813) 648-4420Bullies are a Pain in the Brain ISBN = 56825-029-0 Programs and CurriculumBy Trevor RomainFree Spirit Publishing (1995) Guides on Bullying400 First Ave. N. Childhood Bullying and Teasing: and TeasingMinneapolis, MN 55401 What School Personnel, Other(612) 338-2068 Professionals and Parents Can Do Beane, A., (1999). The Bully FreeISBN = 1-57542-023-6 Dorothea M. Ross Classroom. Minneapolis MN. American Counselingassociation Free Spirit Publishing.Bullying: A Community Approach 5999 Stevenson, Ave.Brendan Byrne (From Dublin) Alexandria, VA 22304-3300I Byrne, B., (1994). Bulling: AThe Columba Press ISBN = 1-55620-157-5 Community Approach. Dublin.Twenty-Third Publications The Columbia Press.PO Box 180 Bullying: A PracticalMystic CT 06355 Guide to Coping for Schools Cohn-Posey, K. (1995). How to(800) 321-0411 Edited by Michele Elliot Handle Bullies, Teasers, and OtherISBN = 1 85607 103 0 Published in Association with Meanies. Highland City , FL. Kidscape Rainbow Books.A Childrens Book about Teasing Pitman PublishingJoy Berry 128 Long Acre London WC2E 9AN Garrity, C., Jens, K., Porter, W., Sager,Help Me Be Good Series 44 (0) 171 447-2000 N., & Short-Camilli, C. (1995). BullyPaperbacks for Educators (1997) proofing your school: A426 West Front Street Available from Amazon.com comprehensive approach forWashington, Missouri 63090 ISBN = 0-273-62692-2 elementary schools. Longmont, CO:(800) 227-2591 Sopris West.No ISBN number Discipline with Dignity Richard L. Curwin Elliott, M., (1997). Bullying: AThe Ugly Duckling Allen N. Mendler Practical Guide to Coping forIt is the ultimate book about bullying: ASCD Schools. London.Many fine versions are available ISBN = 0-87120-154-2 Pittman Publishing. (This is a NES carries this and a smaller description of the Kidscape program companion piece used in the London schools). Bullying: What We Know and What Fried, S. & Fried, P., (1996). Bullies We Can Do and Victims. New York. Dan Olweus M. Evans and Company. 9
10. Hoover, J.H., & Oliver, R.O. (1996). Bosworth, K., Espelage, D.L., & Hoover, J. H., & Milner, C. (1998).The bullying prevention handbook: Simon, T.R. (1999). Factors associated Young peoples rituals of humiliationA guide for principals, teachers, and with bullying behavior in middle and exclusion. Reaching Todayscounselors. Bloomington, IN. school students. Journal of Early Youth: The Community Circle ofNational Educational Service. Adolescence, 19, 341-362. Caring Journal, 2(4), 14-19.Johnson Institute (1996). Respect and Carlsson-Paige, N. & Levin, D. E. Hoover, J. H., & Oliver, R. O. (1996).protect: Violence prevention and (1990). Whos calling the shots. How The bullying prevention handbook:intervention program. Minneapolis, to respond effectively to childrens A guide for principals, teachers, andMN: QVS, Inc. fascination with war play and war toys counselors. Bloomington, IN: and violent TV. Gabriola Island, B.C., national Educational Service.Johnston, M. (1998). Dealing with Canada: New Society Publishers.bullying. New York. Hoover, J. H., Oliver, R. O., &Rosen Publishing Group. Conrad, E. (May, 1992). Names do Thomson, K. (1993). Perceived hurt. Working Mother. 72. victimization by bullies amongLuvmour, S., & Luvmour, J. elementary- and middle-school(Undated). Everyone wins: Cruickshank, D. (1990; Ed.). Research students in the rural Midwest.Cooperative games and activities. that Informs Teachers and Educators. Journal of Humanistic Education andGabriola Island, BC, Canada. Bloomington, IN. Phi Delta Kappa Development, 32, 76-84.New Society Publishers. Educational Foundation. Hoover, J. H., Oliver, R. O., &Olweus, D. (1993). Bullying at Curwin, R. L., & Mendler, A. N. (1988). Hazler, R. J. (1992). Bullying:school. Oxford, UK. Discipline with Dignity, Alexandria, VA. Perceptions of adolescent victims inBlackwell Publishers, Inc. Association for Supervision and the Midwestern U.S.A. School Curriculum C Development. Psychology International, 13, 5-16.Ross, D. M. (1996). Childhoodbullying and teasing: What school Freiberg, J., (1998). Measuring school Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R., &personnel, other professionals, and climate: Let me count the ways: Dudley, B. (1992). Effects of peerparents can do. Alexandria, VA. Realizing a positive school climate, mediation training on elementaryAmerican Counseling Association. Educational Leadership,56 (1), 22-25. school students. Mediation Quarterly, 10, 89-99.Sonnes-Feinberg, L. (1996). Teasing: Froschl, M., and Sprung, B., (March,Innocent Fun or Sadistic Malice? 1999). On purpose: Addressing Kochman, T. (1981). Black andFar Hills, NJ. teasing and bullying in early white styles in conflict. Chicago:New Horizon Press. childhood. Young Children. 70-72. University of Chicago Press. Garbarino, J. (1999). Lost boys: Why Mayer, G.& Mayer, M.,(1995). Just aArticles and Books our sons turn violent and how we can Little Different. New York, Golden. save them. New York: Free Press.of Interest Mendler, A., (1997). Power Goldstein, A. P., Sprafkin, R. P., Struggles: Successful Techniques forAmerican Association of University Gershaw, N J., & Klein, P. (1980). Educators. Rochester, New York.Women and Lewis Harris Associates Skillstreaming the adolescent. Discipline Associates.(1993). Hostile hallways: The Champaign, IL: Research Press. (AlsoAAUW survey on sexual harassment see Skillstreaming the Elementary Mihashi, O. (1987). The symbolismin Americas schools. Annapolis School Child by the same lead author. of social discrimination and decodingJunction, MD: Author (Eric These volumes are highly of discriminatory language. CurrentDocument Reproduction Service No. recommended.) Anthropology, 28, 519-522.ED 356 186) Hazler, R. J., Hoover, J. H., & Oliver, Mooney, A., Creeser, R., &Berthold, K., & Hoover, J. H. (2000). R. O. (1991). Student perceptions of Blatchford, P. (1991). ChildrensCorrelates of bullying and victimization by bullies in school. views on teasing and fighting invictimization among intermediate Journal of Humanistic Education and junior high schools. Educationalstudents in the Midwestern U.S.A. Development, 29, 143-150. Research, 33(2), 103-112.School Psychology InternationalJournal, 20, 159-172. Hoover, J. H., & Hazler, R. J. (1991). Bullies and victims. Elementary School Guidance and Counseling, 25, 212-219.10
11. National Center for Educational Videos and Study GuidesStatistics (1998). Violence anddiscipline problems in U.S. public Brown, T. (Undated). The broken toy.schools: 1996-1997: Executive Zanseville, OH: A Kids Hope andSummary (http://nces.ed.gov/pubs98/ Summerhill Productions.violence/98030001.html). Brown, T. (1997). But names willOliver, R.O., Hoover, J.H., & Hazler, never hurt me. Zanseville, OH:R.J. (1994). The perceived roles of Summerhill Productions.bullying in small-town Midwesternschools. Journal of Counseling and Hoover, J., (1997). Set Straight onDevelopment, 72, 416-420. Bullies: Study Guide. Bloomington, MN. National Educational Service.Olsen, G., & Hoover, J. H. (1997).Conflict resolution in schools: A Hoover, J.H., & Dornheim, B. (2000).review. North Dakota Journal of Preventing sexual harassment (StudyHuman Services, 1(2), 28-37. Guide to accompany video Preventing Sexual Harassment).Olweus, D. (1978). Aggression in theschools: Bullies and whipping boys. Hoover, J. H., & Dornheim, B. (1999).Washington, DC: Hemisphere. School violence: Draw the line. (Study Guide to accompany the videoOlweus, D. (1993). Bullying at School Violence: Draw the Line.)school. Oxford, UK: BlackwellPublishers, Inc. Preventing Sexual Harassment (2000). Video and study guide. VirginiaOlweus, D. 91996). Bully/victim Beach, Virginia: Coastal Trainingproblems at school: Facts and Technologies (1-800-695-0756).effective intervention. Reclaimingchildren and youth. Journal of School Violence: Draw the Lineemotional and behavioral problems, (1999). Video and study guide.5(1), 15-22. Virginia Beach, Virginia: Coastal Training Technology CorporationPerry, D., Kussel, D., & Perry, L. (1-800-695-0756).(1988). Victims of peer aggression.Developmental Psychology, 24(6), Set Straight on Bullies. National807-814. Educational Services, Bloomington, IN. ¨Pipher, M. (1994). Reviving Ophelia:Saving the selves of adolescent girls.New York: Ballentine Books.Shakeshaft, C., Barber, E.,Hergenrother, Johnson, Y.M., Mandel,L.S., & Sawyer, J. (1995). Peerharassment in schools. Journal for aJust and Caring Education, 1, 30-44.Simanton, E., Burthwick, P., &Hoover, J.H. (in press). Small-townbullying and student-on-studentaggression: An initial investigation ofrisk. Journal of At-Risk Issues. 11