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  • 1. Framework of Practice Nursing
  • 2. 2 The Theoretical Foundation of Nursing  Nursing theory provides the theoretical foundation of the profession.  Theory defines what nursing is, what it does, and the goals or outcomes of nursing care.  Nursing is the synthesis of many theories.
  • 3. 3 Components of the Theoretical Foundation  A theory is a set of concepts and propositions that provides an orderly way to view phenomena.  Concepts and propositions are the structural elements of a theoretical foundation.
  • 4. 4 Concepts  Building blocks of a theory  Labels or names for phenomena/observable facts  Assist us in formulating a mental image about an object or situation
  • 5. 5 Concepts  Theories are formed by linking concepts together.  A conceptual framework links global concepts together.
  • 6. 6 Conceptual Model  The “symbolic representation of empiric experience in words, pictorial, or graphic diagram, mathematical notations or physical material.”
  • 7. 7 Propositions  A proposition is a statement that proposes a relationship between concepts.  Propositional statements in a theory represent the theorist’s view of which concepts fit together.
  • 8. 8 Theories  A theory helps us to organize our thoughts and ideas.  In science, the purpose of a theory is to guide research, support existing knowledge, or generate new knowledge.  The term theory is not restricted to the scientific world.
  • 9. 9 Importance of Nursing Theories  Framework for thought in which to examine situations  Structure for organization, analysis, and decision making  Structure for communicating with other nurses and other health team members
  • 10. 10 Importance of Nursing Theories  Assist the nursing discipline in clarifying beliefs, values, and goals.  Help to define the unique contribution of nursing in the care of clients.  Standards of clinical practice are developed out of nursing theories.
  • 11. 11 Process of Knowledge Development
  • 12. 12 Scope of Theories  Grand Theories  Middle-Range Theories
  • 13. 13 Grand Theory  Provides an overall framework for structuring broad, abstract ideas.  Composed of concepts representing global and extremely complex phenomena.
  • 14. 14 Middle-Range Theory  Provides a perspective from which to view complex situations and a direction for interventions in three levels of abstractness. • High middle-range • Middle middle-range • Low middle-range
  • 15. 15 Florence Nightingale’s Influence on Knowledge Development in Nursing  Described nursing as both an art and a science.  Stressed the importance of caring for the ill person rather than the illness.  Viewed a person’s health as the direct result of environmental influences (cleanliness, light, pure air, pure water, efficient drainage).
  • 16. 16 Florence Nightingale’s Influence on Knowledge Development in Nursing  The turn of the 20th century marked the beginning of hospital-based schools of nursing.  Nightingale’s principles were incorporated into modern nursing theory.
  • 17. 17 The Evolution of Nursing Theory  Since the early 1950s, many nursing theories have been systematically developed to help describe, explain, and predict the phenomena of concern to nursing.
  • 18. 18 Knowledge Development in Nursing  Paradigm • A particular viewpoint or perspective • A “worldview” about the phenomena of concern in a discipline (Kuhn, 1970)  Metaparadigm • The major concepts in a discipline that names the phenomena of concern
  • 19. 19 Knowledge Development in Nursing  Metaparadigm of Nursing • Person: Individual, family or group • Health: Continuum of wellness to terminal illness • Environment: Place or community where care is provided • Nursing: Actions; interactions of the nurse with the person
  • 20. 20 Knowledge Development in Nursing  Two individuals with different paradigmatic views can look at the same phenomenon and view the phenomenon differently.
  • 21. 21 Knowledge Development in Nursing  The prevailing paradigm in a discipline represents the dominant view of particular concepts.  A paradigm revolution is the turmoil and conflict that occur in a discipline when a competing paradigm gains acceptance over the dominant paradigm.
  • 22. 22 Knowledge Development in Nursing  A paradigm shift refers to the acceptance of the competing paradigm over the prevailing paradigm or a shifting away from one worldview toward another worldview.  Members of a discipline cannot subscribe to two competing paradigms at the same time.
  • 23. 23 Knowledge Development in Nursing  Four Levels of Knowing • Empirical • Aesthetic • Personal • Ethical
  • 24. 3-24 Early Nursing Theorists  Hildegard Peplau • Defined concepts of stages of nurse-client relationships.  Virginia Henderson • Defined basic human needs as the unique focus of nursing practice.
  • 25. 3-25 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
  • 26. 3-26 Early Nursing Theorists  Faye Abdellah • Identified 21 nursing problems that became the foundation of nursing diagnoses.  Joyce Travelbee, Josephine Paterson and Loretta Zderad • Emphasized the humanistic and existential basis of nursing practice to understanding the uniqueness of patients.
  • 27. 3-27 Contemporary Nursing Theorists  The work of contemporary theorists form the theoretical basis for many interventions in current nursing practice. • Myra Levine • Dorothea Orem • Sister Callista Roy
  • 28. 3-28 Contemporary Nursing Theorists  Myra Levine’s Conservation Theory (1969) • Four universal principles of conservation designed to apply concepts of nursing practice in different environments
  • 29. 3-29 Dorothea Orem  Self-Care Deficit Theory of Nursing • Theory of Self-Care • Theory of Self-Care Deficit • Theory of Nursing Systems
  • 30. 30 Roy Adaptation Model  Developed by Sister Callista Roy, 1976.  Combined general systems theory with adaptation theory.  Goal of nursing is “promotion of adaptation” in each of four modes of adaptation.  Applicable to the home setting.
  • 31. 31 Roy Adaptation Model  The goal of nursing is “the promotion of adaptation” in each of four adaptive modes. • Physiologic • Self-concept • Role function • Interdependence
  • 32. 32 Theories for the New Worldview of Nursing  Describe, explain, and predict the phenomena of concern to nursing from a more holistic perspective. • Jean Watson • Martha Rogers • Rosemarie Parse
  • 33. 33 The Theory of Human Caring  Developed by Jean Watson in the 1980s.  Conceptualizes human-to-human transactions that occur daily in nursing practice.  Ten carative factors are classified as nursing actions or caring processes.
  • 34. 34 The Science of Unitary Human Beings  Developed by Martha Rogers in 1990. • The person is characterized as a human energy field that unites all aspects of the person into a unified whole. • Nursing aims to repattern the rhythm and organization of these energy fields to heighten the integrity of the person.
  • 35. 35 Gordon’s Functional Health Patterns  Influenced by Maslow’s Hierarchy of Basic Human Needs and Von Bartlaffny’s general systems theory.  Offer a holistic approach to the development of nursing diagnoses and client care.  Provides an appropriate method for organization of textbook topics.
  • 36. 36 Continuing Evolution of Nursing Theory  Nursing is always in a state of change.  Nursing knowledge continues to expand in a multiplicity of ways.  New theories will come from a global perspective and international nursing leaders in the 21st century.
  • 37. Contact us:- 011-25464531, 9818569476 E-mail:- 37