Peri operative nursing


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Peri operative nursing

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  • This is a MASH OR (from Dr. Connelly) from Iraq. (notice wires stretched across the room). It is much smaller than an OR in a regular hospital.
    In OR there are RNs, circulating nurses (chart, count, safety to ensure procedures are followed, could leave the room & get something that is needed, make sure all supplies are there, be a patient advocate & hospital advocate – last two are most important).
  • Make sure patient knows exactly what the surgery involves. Person must have capacity (able to understand consequences) the procedure.
    Disclosure; patient must have the knowledge to make a reasonable decision.
    Must be a voluntarey decision. Not even gentle coersion.
    A responsibility of the RN is to ensure that the patient has understood and signed the informed consent. The surgeon is the one that gets the informed consent. As a nurse, we witness the signature.
  • Is someone is anxious, it may alter their anesthesia.
  • Make sure everyone is there before I take the pt back to the OR
  • Patient & family will need psychological support.
    When will the meds be at their peak (timing of administration)
  • Even turn lights down & be quiet during induction (person going under).
    Make sure everything is available (assist during intubation)
    Position: know patient history… if they have heart problems, need to make sure patient is positioned safely. Very easy to dislocate joints or break bones while someone is “under”.
    Every needle & sponge & supply must be counted before surgery is over!
  • Must be an RN
  • This person stays in sterile field (circulating nurse does not).
    A good scrub person anticipates what the surgeon wants prior to asking for it.
  • Informed consent
    Mental state & anesthesia affected by alcoholism & age & being emaciated
    Positioning possible problems due to contractures
  • Issues: asthma
    Out of shape
    Sedentary lifestyle
    Risk for DVT due to sitting a lot (probably get heparin & maybe send home on coumadin)
    Position will be “jack knife” very vulnerable
  • T & A: tonsils & adenoids
    Heart cath: home in 8 hours usually
  • Lap chole: done for gall bladder (break up stones)
  • Exploratory lap: get in, look around, biopsy, & get out
    Palliative: bowel surgery on a patient w/ brain tumor… know they will die anyways but it may relieve symptoms to make the end more peaceful
  • Smokers: how many packs a day X how many years they have been smoking
    Elderly (and very young as well)
    Immobilizing: risk for DVT (use compression devices)
    Self fulfilling prophecy: if pt says they are very scared of the surgery, as an RN that needs to be explored further… is there a family history of malignent hyperthermia? pretreatment w/ Dantrium or rapidly treat patient… w/out treatment pt will die!
  • IS = incinitive spirometry
    Homan’s Sign: only 5 to 10% of positive Homan’s sign means DVT
  • If there isn’t an IS, splint incision is another option: Prevent atelectsis
    Hand washing is most critical thing!
  • Make sure pt is truly informed
    TCBD: turning, coughing & deep breathing
  • Take children into the OR in a wagon w/ a stuffed animal.
  • Most information is written at 5th or 6th grade level.. Make sure they understand.
    Know what labs are: low potassium could mean cardiac arrythmias.
  • Informed consent: make sure patient really does understand what is going to happen.
    Personal belongings: try to give to the family… hosp doesn’t want to be responsible
    Document loose teeth: could possibly be knocked out during intubation if anesthesist doesn’t know about it
    Ted Hose: white compression stockings.
  • Low potassium can cause cardiac arrythemias.
  • Cell Saver is one of the biggest: most JW will accept cell saver
    Blood drains from the chest into collection tubes & is sent back to the patient. Blood never leaves the room.
  • Initially, the reason for creating the bloodless surgery was for JW
  • RX for maligant Hyperthermia is Dantrolene
    Once begun w/out rapid intervention the result is death. Dysrhythmias: muscle rigidity; tachypnea; cyanosis
  • Big Marker is: NO INFECTION
    Pain relief is also a big thing… make sure patient not in pain…
  • Assoc of Operating Room Nurses:
  • Peri operative nursing

    2. 2. Introduction to Perioperative NursingIntroduction to Perioperative Nursing Phases of Perioperative Care  Pre OperativePre Operative - begins with the patient’s decision to have surgery, ends with entry into the operating room  Intra OperativeIntra Operative - begins with entry into the operating room and ends with admission to the recovery room  Post OperativePost Operative - begins with admission to recovery room, and ends with discharge from care (varies but usually 6 weeks post op) by physician
    4. 4. Informed ConsentInformed Consent
    5. 5. Pre-OperativePre-Operative Responsibilities of Operating Room Nurse:  Patient Assessment  Physical Problems  Emotional Aspects  Understanding of surgery/consent  Legal requirements for chart completion  Read and interpret lab results  PeriOperative Teaching
    6. 6. PREOPERATIVE NURSING CONSIDERATIONS  COMPLETE PHYSICAL ASSESSMENT  Physical & psychological needs  Medical & surgical history  Completion of required documents  DETERMINE READINESS & MODE OF TRANSPORTATION TO OR  ACCESS HEALTH CARE TEAM AVAILABILITY  Surgeon  Anesthesia personnel  Circulating nurse  Scrub person  Other personnel
    7. 7. PRE-OP MEDS  Pharmacologic preparation as necessary & psychological support  Facilitates induction of anesthesia & reduces anesthetic requirement  Determinants of drug choice  Age  Weight  Level of anxiety  Drug allergies  Inpatient/outpatient  Timing of administration
    8. 8. PREOPERATIVE NURSING CONSIDERATIONS  COMPLETE PHYSICAL ASSESSMENT  Physical & psychological needs  Medical & surgical history  Completion of required documents  DETERMINE READINESS & MODE OF TRANSPORTATION TO OR  ACCESS HEALTH CARE TEAM AVAILABILITY  Surgeon  Anesthesia personnel  Circulating nurse  Scrub person  Other personnel
    9. 9. Intra-OperativeIntra-Operative  Provide for quiet environment during induction  Assist during intubation  Observe aseptic technique  Safe operation of equipment (lasers, electrosurgery unit)  Position patient safely - CV, nervous, respiratory system  Document events, patient care given,  Provide all supplies, equipment, to team during surgery  Provide for a safe transfer to recovery room
    10. 10. Unsterile Team MemberUnsterile Team Member  Responsible for nursing care in the operating room  Responsible for the organization of the workload  Responsible for the maintenance of policy and procedures  Responsible for signing and documentation  The Circulating Nurse is the professional staff member in the operating room, representing the patient (Patient Advocate) and the hospital administration
    11. 11. Surgical Nurse 1889  A level head & keen eyes, ever watchful for all that may be required, a mind not easily irritated or confused, combined with the facility of keeping out of the way & still being of the greatest help……..Thoroughness, speed, gentleness especially fit the surgical nurse. (Asepsis for the Nurse, Clemons, 1889)
    12. 12. 1945 Discussion of the role of the OR Nurse  “In charge of the operating room, taking care of the needs of the room assigned to her. It is her responsibility to watch the aseptic technique of her team.”  “A surgery nurse must have many good qualities; but first of all, she must be conscientious of sterile technique. Speed & efficiency are of no avail if a surgical wound breaks down due to an infection received in the OR. “ Crawford, 1945
    13. 13. SCRUB PERSON  May be a:  RN  LPN  Surgical Tech  Duties:  Usually confined to the intraoperative phase of the patient’s surgical experience, may also be involved in gathering surgical supplies & equipment
    14. 14. SCRUB NURSE “ The nurse who is the immediate assistant to the surgeon is often called the “scrub” or “sterile” nurse. She first scrubs her hands and arms the required length of time, puts on sterile gown & gloves, and handles only sterile material.” Crawford 1945
    15. 15. SCENARIO #1  A. Smith, RN & D Jones, RN are assigned to scrub & circulate for a 0800 gastrostomy on WW, a 79 year old emaciated male. Since his hospitalization 3 days ago, he has managed to remove his IV and NG tube several times. Consequently he has been restrained even on the stretcher during his transport to the OR. His medical DX is chronic alcoholism with dementia. WW seems to acknowledge D Jones’s presence with a half glance, however he will not respond to the anesthesia provider’s questions. WW is supported on the stretcher in a semi-flower’s position with several pillows. Further assessment reveals that WW has contractures of his hips and knees.
    16. 16. SURGICAL POSITIONING  Facilitated through the nursing process  Patient’s body must remain in physiologic alignment  Dependent Upon:  The surgical procedure  Exposure at the surgical field  Surgeon’s preference and idiosyncrasies  Patient’s condition  Special Considerations:  Geriatric patients  Obese patients  Malnourished patients
    17. 17. SURGICAL POSITIONING EQUIPMENT  Pillow or headrest  Arm boards  Safety belt/strap  Footboard  Padding  Gel pads  Egg crate  Donut rolls  Foam  Padded Shoulder braces  Stirrups (candy canes, Allen, or knee)  Laminectomy Frame  Olympic vac pac (suction beanbag)  3” adhesive tape
    19. 19. SCENARIO #2  WH is a 36 year old black male who had been scheduled for a hemorrhoidectomy on an outpatient basis. He is 5’ 11”tall and weighs 250 lbs. His HBG is low (12g/dL) secondary to rectal bleeding. WH has a HX of asthma since age 5. He has episodes of difficulty breathing 6X/year, treated with an inhaler at the time of each episode. He does not smoke; ETOH 2 glasses of beer per week. WH’s current BP is 138/96, which he controls by taking a daily antihypertensive med. WH is a high school teacher. He spends most of his days standing and occasionally sitting. His evenings and weekend are spent working on a master’s degree in education. He does not participate in a regular exercise program.
    20. 20. SETTINGS:SETTINGS:  Ambulatory Surgery - In and Out in same day  Pre-op teaching  T&A, Cyst removal, D&C, Cataract removal with lens implants, Biopsy  Heart cath  scopes
    21. 21. SETTINGS…SETTINGS…  Same Day General Surgery - Admitted to inpatient unit or special same day surgery unit  Pre-Op teaching prior to day of surgery  Nurses especially trained in Pre-Op assessment (Hysterectomy, Lap Chole, Appendectomy, Mastectomy, C-Section)
    22. 22. SETTINGSSETTINGS ……  Main OR SurgeryMain OR Surgery - Patient admitted to hospital prior to surgery OR DAY OF SURGERY  Prep and assessment and teaching done in hospital  Patient stays @ least overnight, and rehab begins before discharge  Major heart surgery such as CABG’s, Bowel Resections, Large tumor removal or Brain surgery
    23. 23. PURPOSE of SURGERYPURPOSE of SURGERY  Diagnostic - Determines cause of symptoms (Exploratory laparotomy and biopsy)  Curative - Removal of diseased part (Appendectomy, Ovarian Cyst, Cancerous Tumors)  Restorative or Reconstructive - Strengthens a weakened part (Herniorrhaphy or cervical rings) rejoins disconnected areas (orthopedic surgeries), corrects deformities, (MVR, joint replacement, etc)  Palliative - Relieves symptoms without curing (some lower back surgeries, tumorectomies)  Cosmetic - Repairing a burn scar or changing breast shape, altering physical appearance
    24. 24. Patients @ High risk for ComplicationsPatients @ High risk for Complications  Smokers  Obese  Chronic Lung Diseases  Elderly  HTN  Thoracic or Abdominal Surgeries  Immobilizing Surgery  UTI  Diabetes  Poor Nutritional Status  Dehydration  Heart Disease  Self-fulfilling Prophecy  Inhalant Anesthesia
    25. 25. PREVENTING COMPLICATIONSPREVENTING COMPLICATIONS DVT, UTI, Aspiration, Wound Infection, Shock, Constipation  Identify those @ risk  Provide adequate hydration/nutrition  NPO after MN  Leg exercises  Breathing exercises and IS  I&O
    26. 26. Preventing Complications…Preventing Complications…  Splint Incision to cough  Anticoagulant Therapy - Heparin  Ambulate and OOB to BRP - ASAP  Discourage smoking  Fluid and fiber ASAP, laxatives. Enemas  Clean Hands  Instruct in proper wound care  Sterile bowel prep and skin prep  Sleep/Rest
    27. 27. PREPPING THE PATIENTPREPPING THE PATIENT TEACHING  Name and purpose of the surgery  NPO after MN and why early awakening, shower, remove all jewelry, makeup, etc  Anesthesia, Cold Room, Smells, Drowsy Feeling  Recovery Room  Post-op care - TCDB, leg exercises, pain management, DVT< OOB ASAP  Begin discharge planning
    28. 28. WAYS TO DECREASE ANXIETYWAYS TO DECREASE ANXIETY COMMUNICATION  Early teaching and counseling  Diversional activities  Encourage family support  Encourage verbalization of fears/loss of control  Deep breathing, medications, imagery, music
    29. 29. Ways to Decrease Anxiety…Ways to Decrease Anxiety…  Spiritual support (communion, bible reading, prayers, rituals, chants)  Inform family where to wait, buy food, bathroom, phone, overnight and visiting policy  Possible use of sedative or tranquilizer or PRN medications  Dolls/favorite toy for children
    30. 30. NURSING ASSESSMENTNURSING ASSESSMENT  Assessment Data Base - vital signs, weight, height  Review of Systems  Past history of illnesses (i.e. HTN, pneumonia) that may predispose client to complications  Past experience with hospitalization or surgery  Allergies to medications or foods, tapes, surgical scrubs
    31. 31. Nursing Assessment…Nursing Assessment…  Intellectual ability to understand teaching  Language differences, social, spiritual or cultural considerations, anxiety level  Labs: CBC; U/A; Chemistry (electrolytes: K,CL,NA,CA,BS,BUN,Creatine), total bilirubin, albumin, alkaline phosphatase, SGOT, HCO3, HIV, Pregnancy  Other: Chest X-Ray, EKG if > 40 years old
    32. 32. PRE-OP NURSING DIAGNOSESPRE-OP NURSING DIAGNOSES  Knowledge Deficit R/T Unfamiliar Planned or Unplanned Surgery  Ineffective individual or family coping R/T Unfamiliar Planned or Unplanned Surgery  Anticipatory Grieving R/T Potential for Loss of Life or Body Part
    33. 33. NURSING RESPONSIBLITIESNURSING RESPONSIBLITIES  Informed Consent Form/Patient Advocacy  Secure personal belongings: Dentures, glasses, rings, money  Administration of pre-op medications on call to OR - i.e. Demerol, Valium, Atropine  Complete Pre-op Checklist @ clinical site - remove hair pins, loose teeth, dentures, nail polish, bath, urinate, NPO, VS taken within 15 minutes of going to OR, Ted Hose or compression devices
    34. 34. NURSING RESPONSIBLITIES ...NURSING RESPONSIBLITIES ...  Report anything of note that needs to be brought to the attention of the anesthesiologist, surgeon, or OR nurse  low potassium,  fever,  arrthymias,  loose teeth,  chest pain, or  anything unusual  Assure patient has ID bracelet on; Send current chart and any old medical records with the patient;  EVALUATE patients level of understanding, physical stability, emotionally prepared, fulfilled hospital pre-op policies
    35. 35. TYPES OF SURGERYTYPES OF SURGERY  MAJORMAJOR -- Present a real threat to life  MINORMINOR -- Present little threat to life NOTE: ****NOTE: **** All patients consider their surgery a major thing ********
    36. 36. BLOODLESS SURGERY  a term that has evolved in the medical literature to refer to a perioperative team approach to avoid allogeneic transfusions and improve patient outcomes  utilizing combinations of the numerous blood conservation techniques and transfusion alternatives available
    37. 37. BENEFITS OF BLOODLESS SURGERY  Decreased costs  Less risk for blood contamination for patients  Reduce risk of post op fevers and infections usually associated with blood transfusions  Promotes better quality patient care  At times decreased death rate  Can decrease time spent in ICU
    38. 38. Catastrophic Events in the ORCatastrophic Events in the OR AnticipatedAnticipated:  Cardiac Arrest in an unstable patient  Massive Blood Loss - during trauma surgery  Loss of ability to ventilate a patient
    39. 39. Catastrophic Events in OR ...Catastrophic Events in OR ... Unanticipated:Unanticipated:  Latex Allergy ReactionLatex Allergy Reaction - reactions can range from urticaria to anaphylaxis  Maligant HyperthermiaMaligant Hyperthermia - rare, life-threatening disorder that can be triggered by anesthesia drugs - Is an autosomal dominant trait
    40. 40. Peri-Operative Standards of Care (example)Peri-Operative Standards of Care (example)  All Policy & Procedures of the medical and surgical nursing division will be followed.  Patients shall ALWAYS wear a legible identification band  Operative permit(s) must be signed and witnessed according to hospital policy, The procedure documented on the operative permit MUST MATCH what is scheduled on the OR schedule  The history and physical shall be completed according to policy and be part of the medical record prior to surgery  All ordered lab work shall be collected and results placed in the medical record in accordance with the physician’s orders  Dentures, hairpins, jewelry, wigs, contact lenses, nail polish, make-up and prosthesis shall be removed as requested by the physician  Any jewelry not removed shall be secured with tape and documented as such
    41. 41. Peri-Operative Standards of Care …  Pre-operative skin prep shall be done without abrading, cutting or irritating the patient’s skin  Patient privacy shall be provided at all times  Any pre-operative drainage tubes shall be placed without tissue trauma and be completed utilizing sterile techniques when indicated  All IV infusions shall be monitored to maintain the appropriate flow rate and type of solution and remain patent without signs of inflammation or swelling  The patient shall be provided emotional and educational support to reduce pre-operative anxiety  The patients shall be provided a safe and normothermic environment in the pre-op waiting area  The patient shall be transferred safely to the OR table and safety straps appropriately applied
    42. 42. Expected Outcomes:Expected Outcomes:  Demonstrate knowledge of physiologic & psychological responses to surgical intervention  Absence of infection  Maintenance of skin integrity  Freedom from injury R/T positioning, equipment  Maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance  Satisfaction with pain relief  Participation in the rehab process
    43. 43. AORN a tradition of excellence  Formally organized between 1949 – 1954  A professional organization of periOperative registered nurses whose mission is to provide quality patient care by providing its members with education, standards, services and representation.  Membership 340 chapters, 12 specialty assemblies, 25 state councils and 41,000 members
    44. 44. PERIOPERATIVE NURSING If you or your family came through surgery in good shape, thank a perioperative nurse.
    45. 45. If someone listens, or stretches out a hand, or whispers a kind word of encouragement, or attempts to understand a lonely person, extraordinary things begin to happen Loretta Gizarlis (1920) American writer and educator
    46. 46. 011-25464531, 011-41425180, 011-66217387 +91-9818308353,+91-9818569476 A WORLDWIDE MISSITION Contact Us:- JOIN US