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2010 Mohammad Farmad Hamed Ouchany Supervised  by Dr Abolghasem Arabiun [email_address] Dr  Mohammad RezaKazemi [email_add...
<ul><li>Introducing GEM </li></ul><ul><li>Entrepreneurship Elements </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Development </li></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>Decision needs Data </li></ul><ul><li>GEM is an International </li></ul><ul><li>and valid Data Source </li></ul><u...
<ul><li>Academic research consortium that has as its goal making high quality international research data on entrepreneuri...
Participated Countries Year 4 1997 10 1999 21 2000 29 2001 42 2006 63 200 9
<ul><li>To measure differences in the level of </li></ul><ul><li>entrepreneurial activity among countries </li></ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>Nascent entrepreneur  ( نوظهور ) </li></ul><ul><li>New entrepreneur ( جدید ) </li></ul><ul><li>Early –Stage entrep...
<ul><li>Adult Population Survey (APS) </li></ul><ul><li>National Expert Survey (NES) </li></ul><ul><li>Standard National D...
<ul><li>National </li></ul><ul><li>Global </li></ul>
<ul><li>“ someone who identified the willingness to  bear the personal financial risk of a business venture.” </li></ul><u...
<ul><li>Godin and colleagues (2008) </li></ul>
<ul><li>Attitudes  toward entrepreneurship </li></ul><ul><li>the extent to which people think there are good opportunities...
<ul><li>Activity   is the extent to which people in a </li></ul><ul><li>population are creating new business activity </li...
<ul><li>Aspirations   </li></ul><ul><li>the effort of the entrepreneur to </li></ul><ul><li>engage in new product and proc...
<ul><li>Factor-Driven Economies </li></ul><ul><li>Large agricultural sector </li></ul><ul><li>Based on natural resources <...
<ul><li>self-employment opportunities in order to make a living </li></ul><ul><li>Nascent and new business activity is exp...
<ul><li>Efficiency-Driven Economies </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial sector develops </li></ul><ul><li>Higher productivity thr...
<ul><li>necessity-driven industrial activity to gradually fall and give way to an emerging small-scale manufacturing secto...
<ul><li>Innovation-Driven economies </li></ul><ul><li>Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland...
<ul><li>Increase in  research and development </li></ul><ul><li>Support of opportunity-seeking entrepreneurial activity </...
<ul><li>Indicators of a country’s potential to promote the development of entrepreneurship </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
<ul><li>Necessity-based entrepreneurship :starting a business because you were pushed into it </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunit...
 
 
 
 
<ul><li>supply side  : willingness and perceived ability to become an   entrepreneur </li></ul><ul><li>demand side   :   o...
<ul><li>see more and more successful entrepreneurs </li></ul><ul><li>in their direct environment </li></ul><ul><li>assessm...
 
 
<ul><li>Although most individuals are  pulled into </li></ul><ul><li>entrepreneurial activity because of   opportunity   r...
<ul><li>Many businesses that are discontinued are not failed   businesses </li></ul>
 
 
 
<ul><li>GEM Global Report 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>GEM Global Report 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.gemconsortium.org </l...
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Gem Presentation Bld4

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Transcript of "Gem Presentation Bld4"

  1. 1. 2010 Mohammad Farmad Hamed Ouchany Supervised by Dr Abolghasem Arabiun [email_address] Dr Mohammad RezaKazemi [email_address]
  2. 2. <ul><li>Introducing GEM </li></ul><ul><li>Entrepreneurship Elements </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Development </li></ul><ul><li>GEM Model </li></ul><ul><li>Entrepreneurship and Economic Development </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Decision needs Data </li></ul><ul><li>GEM is an International </li></ul><ul><li>and valid Data Source </li></ul><ul><li>+ Plus valuable reports </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Academic research consortium that has as its goal making high quality international research data on entrepreneurial activity </li></ul><ul><li>  GEM is the largest single study of entrepreneurial activity in the world. </li></ul>Global Monitoring Entrepreneurship
  5. 5. Participated Countries Year 4 1997 10 1999 21 2000 29 2001 42 2006 63 200 9
  6. 6. <ul><li>To measure differences in the level of </li></ul><ul><li>entrepreneurial activity among countries </li></ul><ul><li>To uncover factors determining national levels </li></ul><ul><li>of entrepreneurial activity </li></ul><ul><li>To identify policies that may enhance the </li></ul><ul><li>national level of entrepreneurial activity </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Nascent entrepreneur ( نوظهور ) </li></ul><ul><li>New entrepreneur ( جدید ) </li></ul><ul><li>Early –Stage entrepreneur Activity (TEA) ( نوپا ) </li></ul><ul><li>Established entrepreneur ( تثبیت شده ) </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Adult Population Survey (APS) </li></ul><ul><li>National Expert Survey (NES) </li></ul><ul><li>Standard National Data </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>National </li></ul><ul><li>Global </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>“ someone who identified the willingness to bear the personal financial risk of a business venture.” </li></ul><ul><li>Cantillon (1755) </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Godin and colleagues (2008) </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Attitudes toward entrepreneurship </li></ul><ul><li>the extent to which people think there are good opportunities for starting a business </li></ul><ul><li>level of risk bearing </li></ul><ul><li>Perception of skills, knowledge and experience in business creation. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Activity is the extent to which people in a </li></ul><ul><li>population are creating new business activity </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Aspirations </li></ul><ul><li>the effort of the entrepreneur to </li></ul><ul><li>engage in new product and process </li></ul><ul><li>open foreign markets </li></ul><ul><li>plan to increase the number of employees </li></ul><ul><li>be ambitious for high growth </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Factor-Driven Economies </li></ul><ul><li>Large agricultural sector </li></ul><ul><li>Based on natural resources </li></ul><ul><li>Angola, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina*, Colombia*, Ecuador*, Egypt, India, Iran* </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>self-employment opportunities in order to make a living </li></ul><ul><li>Nascent and new business activity is expected to be high based on economic necessity </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Efficiency-Driven Economies </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial sector develops </li></ul><ul><li>Higher productivity through economies of scale </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing economic productivity contributes </li></ul><ul><li>to financial capital formation </li></ul><ul><li>Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Croatia**, Dominican Republic, Hungary**, Jamaica, Latvia, Macedonia, Mexico, Peru, Romania, Russia, Serbia, South Africa, Turkey, Uruguay </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>necessity-driven industrial activity to gradually fall and give way to an emerging small-scale manufacturing sector. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Innovation-Driven economies </li></ul><ul><li>Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, </li></ul><ul><li>Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia, Spain, United Kingdom, United States </li></ul><ul><li>In innovation-driven economies, opportunity-driven entrepreneurship is expected to be higher than in factor- and efficiency driven economies </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Increase in research and development </li></ul><ul><li>Support of opportunity-seeking entrepreneurial activity </li></ul><ul><li>‘ agents of creative destruction’ </li></ul><ul><li>Innovative entrepreneurial firms may emerge as significant drivers of economic growth and wealth creation </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Indicators of a country’s potential to promote the development of entrepreneurship </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Necessity-based entrepreneurship :starting a business because you were pushed into it </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity-based entrepreneurship: starting a business to exploit a perceived business opportunity </li></ul>
  23. 27. <ul><li>supply side : willingness and perceived ability to become an entrepreneur </li></ul><ul><li>demand side : opportunities for entrepreneurship ,but equally important is that entrepreneurs perceive that there are opportunities for starting a business </li></ul>
  24. 28. <ul><li>see more and more successful entrepreneurs </li></ul><ul><li>in their direct environment </li></ul><ul><li>assessment of opportunity costs </li></ul><ul><li>risk-reward assessment </li></ul>
  25. 31. <ul><li>Although most individuals are pulled into </li></ul><ul><li>entrepreneurial activity because of opportunity recognition, others are pushed into entrepreneurship because they have no other means of making a living or because they fear becoming unemployed in the near future </li></ul>
  26. 32. <ul><li>Many businesses that are discontinued are not failed businesses </li></ul>
  27. 36. <ul><li>GEM Global Report 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>GEM Global Report 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.gemconsortium.org </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.gemiran.com </li></ul><ul><li>GEM National Report (LONDON) </li></ul><ul><li>Profile of GEM, By Dr Zali </li></ul>
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