Gem Presentation Bld4

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  • 1. 2010 Mohammad Farmad Hamed Ouchany Supervised by Dr Abolghasem Arabiun [email_address] Dr Mohammad RezaKazemi [email_address]
  • 2.
    • Introducing GEM
    • Entrepreneurship Elements
    • Economic Development
    • GEM Model
    • Entrepreneurship and Economic Development
  • 3.
    • Decision needs Data
    • GEM is an International
    • and valid Data Source
    • + Plus valuable reports
  • 4.
    • Academic research consortium that has as its goal making high quality international research data on entrepreneurial activity
    •   GEM is the largest single study of entrepreneurial activity in the world.
    Global Monitoring Entrepreneurship
  • 5. Participated Countries Year 4 1997 10 1999 21 2000 29 2001 42 2006 63 200 9
  • 6.
    • To measure differences in the level of
    • entrepreneurial activity among countries
    • To uncover factors determining national levels
    • of entrepreneurial activity
    • To identify policies that may enhance the
    • national level of entrepreneurial activity
  • 7.
    • Nascent entrepreneur ( نوظهور )
    • New entrepreneur ( جدید )
    • Early –Stage entrepreneur Activity (TEA) ( نوپا )
    • Established entrepreneur ( تثبیت شده )
  • 8.
    • Adult Population Survey (APS)
    • National Expert Survey (NES)
    • Standard National Data
  • 9.
    • National
    • Global
  • 10.
    • “ someone who identified the willingness to bear the personal financial risk of a business venture.”
    • Cantillon (1755)
  • 11.
    • Godin and colleagues (2008)
  • 12.
    • Attitudes toward entrepreneurship
    • the extent to which people think there are good opportunities for starting a business
    • level of risk bearing
    • Perception of skills, knowledge and experience in business creation.
  • 13.
    • Activity is the extent to which people in a
    • population are creating new business activity
  • 14.
    • Aspirations
    • the effort of the entrepreneur to
    • engage in new product and process
    • open foreign markets
    • plan to increase the number of employees
    • be ambitious for high growth
  • 15.
    • Factor-Driven Economies
    • Large agricultural sector
    • Based on natural resources
    • Angola, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina*, Colombia*, Ecuador*, Egypt, India, Iran*
  • 16.
    • self-employment opportunities in order to make a living
    • Nascent and new business activity is expected to be high based on economic necessity
  • 17.
    • Efficiency-Driven Economies
    • Industrial sector develops
    • Higher productivity through economies of scale
    • Increasing economic productivity contributes
    • to financial capital formation
    • Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Croatia**, Dominican Republic, Hungary**, Jamaica, Latvia, Macedonia, Mexico, Peru, Romania, Russia, Serbia, South Africa, Turkey, Uruguay
  • 18.
    • necessity-driven industrial activity to gradually fall and give way to an emerging small-scale manufacturing sector.
  • 19.
    • Innovation-Driven economies
    • Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea,
    • Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia, Spain, United Kingdom, United States
    • In innovation-driven economies, opportunity-driven entrepreneurship is expected to be higher than in factor- and efficiency driven economies
  • 20.
    • Increase in research and development
    • Support of opportunity-seeking entrepreneurial activity
    • ‘ agents of creative destruction’
    • Innovative entrepreneurial firms may emerge as significant drivers of economic growth and wealth creation
  • 21.
    • Indicators of a country’s potential to promote the development of entrepreneurship
    •  
  • 22.
    • Necessity-based entrepreneurship :starting a business because you were pushed into it
    • Opportunity-based entrepreneurship: starting a business to exploit a perceived business opportunity
  • 23.  
  • 24.  
  • 25.  
  • 26.  
  • 27.
    • supply side : willingness and perceived ability to become an entrepreneur
    • demand side : opportunities for entrepreneurship ,but equally important is that entrepreneurs perceive that there are opportunities for starting a business
  • 28.
    • see more and more successful entrepreneurs
    • in their direct environment
    • assessment of opportunity costs
    • risk-reward assessment
  • 29.  
  • 30.  
  • 31.
    • Although most individuals are pulled into
    • entrepreneurial activity because of opportunity recognition, others are pushed into entrepreneurship because they have no other means of making a living or because they fear becoming unemployed in the near future
  • 32.
    • Many businesses that are discontinued are not failed businesses
  • 33.  
  • 34.  
  • 35.  
  • 36.
    • GEM Global Report 2008
    • GEM Global Report 2007
    • http://www.gemconsortium.org
    • http://www.gemiran.com
    • GEM National Report (LONDON)
    • Profile of GEM, By Dr Zali