Hand spinning


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Hand spinning

  1. 1. Hand Spinning of yarns Prepared by Parul Kapur
  2. 2. Introduction Spinning is an ancient textile art in which plant, animal or synthetic fibers are twisted together to form a yarn. Spinning is the twisting together of drawn out strands of fibers to form yarn, though it is informally used to describe the process of drawing out, inserting the twist, and winding onto bobbins. Characteristics of spun yarn vary according to the material used, fiber length and alignment, quantity of fiber used, and degree of twist. By Parul Kapur 2
  3. 3. History The origins of spinning fiber to make string or yarn are lost in time, but archaeological evidence in the form of representation of string skirts has been dated to the Upper Paleolithic era, some 20,000 years ago. In the most primitive type of spinning, tufts of animal hair or plant fiber are rolled down the thigh with the hand, and additional tufts are added as needed until the desired length of spun fiber is achieved. Later, the fiber is fastened to a stone which is twirled round until the yarn is sufficiently twisted, whereupon it is wound upon the stone and the process repeated over and over. By Parul Kapur 3
  4. 4. History continuedThe next method of spinning yarn is with the spindle, a straight stickeight to twelve inches long on which the yarn is wound aftertwisting.At first the stick had a cleft or split in the top in which the threadwas fixed. Later, a hook of bone was added to the upper end.The bunch of wool or plant fibers is held in the left hand. With theright hand the fibers are drawn out several inches and the endfastened securely in the slit or hook on the top of the spindle. Awhirling motion is given to the spindle on the thigh or anyconvenient part of the body.The twisted yarn is then wound on to the upper part of the spindle.Another bunch of fibers is drawn out, the spindle is given anothertwirl, the yarn is wound on the spindle, and so on By Parul Kapur 4
  5. 5. History continuedIn medieval times, poor families had such a need for yarn to maketheir own cloth and clothes that practically all girls and unmarriedwomen would keep busy spinning, and "spinster" becamesynonymous with an unmarried woman.Subsequent improvements with spinning wheels and thenmechanical methods made hand-spinning increasinglyuneconomic, but as late as the twentieth century hand-spinningremained widespread in poor countries: in conscious rejection ofinternational industrialization, Gandhi was a notable practitioner. By Parul Kapur 5
  6. 6. Spinning withspinning wheel
  7. 7. Numerous types of spinning wheels exist, includingthe great wheel also known as walking wheel or woolwheel for rapid long draw spinning of woolen-spun yarns;the flax wheel, which is a double-drive wheel used witha distaff for spinning linen; saxony and upright wheels, all-purpose treadle driven wheels used to spin worsted-spun yarns; and the charkha, native to Asia. By Parul Kapur 7
  8. 8. Image: www.schachtspindle.com By Parul Kapur 8
  9. 9. Hand powered spinning wheels Hand powered spinning wheels are powered by the spinner turning a crank for flywheel with their hand, as opposed to pressing pedals or using a mechanical engine.1. Charkha - The charkha, a small, portable, hand-cranked wheel, is ideal for spinning cotton and other fine, short-staple fibers, though it can be used to spin other fibers as well. The size varies, from that of a hardbound novel to the size of a briefcase, to a floor charkha. It has a drive wheel being turned by hand, while the yarn is spun off the tip of the spindle.2. Great Wheel - The fiber is held in the left hand and the wheel slowly turned with the right. This wheel is thus good for using the long-draw spinning technique, which requires only one active hand most of the time, thus freeing a hand to turn the wheel. The great wheel is usually used to spin wool, and can only be used with fiber preparations that are suited to long- draw spinning. The great wheel is usually over 5 feet or 1.5 m in height. The large drive wheel turns the much smaller spindle assembly, with the spindle revolving many times for each turn of the drive wheel. The yarn is spun at an angle off the tip of the spindle, and is then stored on the spindle. By Parul Kapur 9
  10. 10. Hand Spinning Hand Spinning withwith Charkha Great Wheel By Parul Kapur 10
  11. 11. Spinning Process By Parul Kapur 11
  12. 12. # Operation Purpose1 Opening Loosens, blends, cleans, forms a lap.2 Carding Cleans, straightens, forms Carded Sliver.3 Drawing Parallels, blends, forms Drawn Sliver.4 Combing Parallels, removes short fibers, forms Combed Sliver5 Roving Reduces size, inserts slight twist, forms Roving.6 Spinning Reduces size, twists, winds the finished yarn on a bobbin.7 Winding Rewinds yarns from bobbin to spools or cones or desired package. By Parul Kapur 12
  13. 13. Spindle Hand Comber Drop Spindle Method By Parul Kapur 13
  14. 14. Cotton growing Harvest Ginning Cotton seed - Agricultural by product Processesa. Processing COTTON LINT Baling, HVI Classing for cotton (Transport to textile mill) Engineered Fibre Selection EFS yarns (Marshalling into “mixes” or laydowns) Blow-room processes (blend, open & clean) Carding Drawing Lap forming Textile Processes Combing Drawing (x 2) Rotor spinning Roving Ring spinning Short staple yarns Carded rotor spun yarn, Carded ring spun yarn Combed rotor spun yarn, Combed ring spun yarn By Parul Kapur 14
  15. 15. Raw Wool Opening & Blending Early stage processing Scouring & Dryingb. Processing SCOURED WOOL of Woolen Worsted Carding Yarns Intermediate Gillings (usually 3) Top-making Combing Finishing Gillings (usually 2) WORSTED TOP Drawings (2 to 5) Spinning Spinning WORSTED SINGLES YARN By Parul Kapur 15
  16. 16. Characteristics ofSpun Yarns By Parul Kapur 16
  17. 17. 1 Nature of twist •Type of twist •Twist direction By Parul Kapur 17
  18. 18. a. Type of twist Real twist To insert a real twist into a length of yarn, one end of the yarn should be rotated relative to the other end By Parul Kapur 18
  19. 19. False twist When inserting false twist into a length of yarn, both ends of the yarn are clamped, usually by rollers, and twist is inserted with a false twister between the clamping points By Parul Kapur 19
  20. 20. b. Twist Direction Yarns can be twisted with either a right hand twist i.e. ‘S’ twist or a left hand twist i.e. ‘Z’ twist. The direction of the twist conforms to the center bar of the letters ‘S’ or ‘Z’. By Parul Kapur 20
  21. 21. More twist gives greater radial component to anyapplied tension, so increases resistance of fibres toslip and the strength of yarn increases as aconsequence.Yarns intended for different end uses have differentcharacteristics.However, the end-use of yarn may be such thatother properties may be more important. Forexample, a yarn to be used for weft or for hosierymay be required to be soft and bulky and thereforea low twist factor is used. A yarn to be used for theproduction of voile or crepe fabric will necessitatethe use of a high twist factor. By Parul Kapur 21
  22. 22. 2. Materials Yarn can be spun from a wide variety of materials, including natural fibers such as animal, plant, and mineral fibers, and synthetic fibers. The type and nature of the fiber chosen decides the characteristic properties of the yarn; e.g. cotton fibers when spun into a yarn will give a soft even yarn, whereas woolen yarns will have a fuzzy surface. The strength of the fiber/material chosen will decide the strength of the resultant yarn, along with degree of twist. By Parul Kapur 22
  23. 23. 3. Plying of the yarn Two or more spun yarns (singles) may be twisted or plied together to form a thicker yarn. Yarns can be made of two, three, four, or more plies. Cabled yarns are usually four-ply yarns made by plying two strands of two-ply yarn together in the direction opposite to the plying direction for the two-ply yarns. By Parul Kapur 23
  24. 24. Contemporary HandSpinning By Parul Kapur 24
  25. 25. Hand-spinning is still an important skill in many traditionalsocieties.Within the recent past, many new spinners have joined intothis ancient process, innovating the craft and creating newtechniques. From using new dyeing methods beforespinning, to mixing in novelty elements that would notnormally be found in traditional yarns, to creating andemploying new techniques like coiling, this craft isconstantly evolving and shifting.To make various yarns, besides adding novelty elements,spinners can vary all the same things as in a machined yarn,i.e., the fiber, the preparation, the color, the spinningtechnique, the direction of the twist, etc. By Parul Kapur 25
  26. 26. Characteristics ofHand Spun Yarn By Parul Kapur 26
  27. 27. Fabrics woven or knit from hand spun yarns are very soft.Is irregular in the tension of its twists, thus irregular inthickness along the length i.e. some areas are loosely twistedwhile others tight twisted. (More by drop spindle method)These years dye unevenly due to uneven twist.The loosely twisted areas form weak areas in the fabric.Can introduce variety of effects/features into the yarn whileplying, that are difficult to do with machine spinning e.g.inserting beads.Novelty yarns are best created with hand spinning.As hand-made the effects cannot be duplicated with 100%accuracy. By Parul Kapur 27
  28. 28. Decorative Handspun Yarns for Knitting By Parul Kapur 28
  29. 29. Handspun yarn for weaving, knitting, crochet etc. By Parul Kapur 29
  30. 30. Handspun Yarn FabricsBy Parul Kapur 30