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Inventory Management I
Definitions
   Inventory-A physical resource that a firm
    holds in stock with the intent of selling it or
    transfor...
Inventory
   Def. - A physical resource that a firm holds in
    stock with the intent of selling it or
    transforming ...
Expensive Stuff
   The average carrying cost of inventory
    across all mfg.. in the U.S. is 30-35% of
    its value.
 ...
Zero Inventory?
   Reducing amounts of raw materials and
    purchased parts and subassemblies by
    having suppliers de...
Inventory Positions in the
 Supply Chain



Raw         Works
Materials             Finished   Finished
            in    ...
Reasons for Inventories
   Improve customer service
   Economies of purchasing
   Economies of production
   Transport...
Inventory and Value
   Remember this?
       Quality
       Speed
       Flexibility
       Cost
Nature of Inventory: Adding
Value through Inventory
   Quality - inventory can be a “buffer” against poor
    quality; co...
Nature of Inventory:
Functional Roles of Inventory
   Transit
   Buffer
   Seasonal
   Decoupling
   Speculative
   ...
Design of Inventory Mgmt.
Systems: Macro Issues
   Need for Finished Goods Inventories
       Need to satisfy internal o...
How to Measure Inventory
   The Dilemma: closely monitor and control
    inventories to keep them as low as possible
    ...
Inventory Measures
   Weeks of Supply
       Ford: 3.51 weeks
       Sears: 9.2 weeks
   Inventory Turnover (Turns)
  ...
Reasons Against Inventory
   Non-value added costs
   Opportunity cost
   Complacency
   Inventory deteriorates, becom...
Inventory Costs
   Procurement costs
   Carrying costs
   Out-of-stock costs
Procurement Costs
   Order processing
   Shipping
   Handling
   Purchasing cost: c(x)= $100 + $5x
   Mfg. cost:     ...
Carrying Costs
   Capital (opportunity) costs
   Inventory risk costs
   Space costs
   Inventory service costs
Out-of-Stock Costs
   Lost sales cost
   Back-order cost
Independent Demand
   Independent demand items are
    finished products or parts that are
    shipped as end items to cu...
Dependent Demand
   Dependent demand items are raw
    materials, component parts, or
    subassemblies that are used to ...
Design of Inventory Mgmt.
Systems: Micro Issues
   Order Quantity
      Economic Order Quantity
   Order Timing
       ...
Objectives of Inventory
Control
   1) Maximize the level of customer
    service by avoiding understocking.
   2) Promot...
Balance in Inventory Levels
   When should the company replenish its
    inventory, or when should the company
    place ...
Models for Inventory Management:
EOQ
   EOQ minimizes the sum of holding and setup
    costs
   Q = 2DCo/Ch
    D = annu...
Seatide
   EOQ =    2DCo/Ch
    D = annual demand = 6,000
    Co = ordering/setup costs = $60
    Ch = cost of holding on...
Marginal Analysis

                    Holding
                     Costs

$



                    Ordering
             ...
Reorder Point
   Quantity to which inventory is allowed to drop
    before replenishment order is made

   Need to order...
Sawtooth Model
              level of inventory          average

  inventory

units
        Q




              t        ...
Q - System Inventory
Control
   based on reorder point - When
    inventory is depleted to ROP, order
    replenishment o...
Order Quantities
   when demand is smooth and
    continuous, can operate response-
    based system by determining
    ...
Planning for Uncertainty
   changing lead times
   changing demand
   Uncertainty creeps in:
       Plug in safety sto...
Inventory Model Under
    Uncertainty

reorder Qm
point


             safety stock
                            time
Models for Inventory Management:
Quantity Discount
   Basically EOQ with quantity discounts
   To solve:
     1. Write o...
P-System
Periodic Review Method
   an alternative to ROP/Q-system control is
    periodic review method
   Q-system - ea...
Using P-System
   audit inventory level at interval (T)
   quantity to place on order is difference
    between max. qua...
Types of Inventory Systems
   By Degree of Control required
       often use grouping method, such as ABC
Classifying Inventory Items
   ABC Classification (Pareto Principle)
   A Items: very tight control, complete and
    ac...
Does ABC Classification Make
Sense for an Assembler?
   i.e. – Gateway Computers
Planning Supply Chain Activities
Anticipatory - allocate supply to each
   warehouse based on the forecast




Response-ba...
Anticipatory Inventory
Control
   determine requirements by forecasting
    demand for the next production run or
    pur...
Response-Based System
   replenishment, production, or purchases of
    stock are made only when it has been
    signaled...
Service Level Achieved
•Item fill rate (IFR): the probability of filling
an order for 1 item from current stock

      exp...
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Inventry Management

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The important chapter to understand about the inventory management

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  1. 1. Inventory Management I
  2. 2. Definitions  Inventory-A physical resource that a firm holds in stock with the intent of selling it or transforming it into a more valuable state.  Inventory System- A set of policies and controls that monitors levels of inventory and determines what levels should be maintained, when stock should be replenished, and how large orders should be
  3. 3. Inventory  Def. - A physical resource that a firm holds in stock with the intent of selling it or transforming it into a more valuable state.  Raw Materials  Works-in-Process  Finished Goods  Maintenance, Repair and Operating (MRO)
  4. 4. Expensive Stuff  The average carrying cost of inventory across all mfg.. in the U.S. is 30-35% of its value.  What does that mean?  Savings from reduced inventory result in increased profit.
  5. 5. Zero Inventory?  Reducing amounts of raw materials and purchased parts and subassemblies by having suppliers deliver them directly.  Reducing the amount of works-in process by using just-in-time production.  Reducing the amount of finished goods by shipping to markets as soon as possible.
  6. 6. Inventory Positions in the Supply Chain Raw Works Materials Finished Finished in Goods Goods Process in Field
  7. 7. Reasons for Inventories  Improve customer service  Economies of purchasing  Economies of production  Transportation savings  Hedge against future  Unplanned shocks (labor strikes, natural disasters, surges in demand, etc.)  To maintain independence of supply chain
  8. 8. Inventory and Value  Remember this?  Quality  Speed  Flexibility  Cost
  9. 9. Nature of Inventory: Adding Value through Inventory  Quality - inventory can be a “buffer” against poor quality; conversely, low inventory levels may force high quality  Speed - location of inventory has gigantic effect on speed  Flexibility - location, level of anticipatory inventory both have effects  Cost - direct: purchasing, delivery, manufacturing indirect: holding, stockout. HR systems may promote this-3 year postings
  10. 10. Nature of Inventory: Functional Roles of Inventory  Transit  Buffer  Seasonal  Decoupling  Speculative  Lot Sizing or Cycle  Mistakes
  11. 11. Design of Inventory Mgmt. Systems: Macro Issues  Need for Finished Goods Inventories  Need to satisfy internal or external customers?  Can someone else in the value chain carry the inventory?  Ownership of Inventories  Specific Contents of Inventories  Locations of Inventories  Tracking
  12. 12. How to Measure Inventory  The Dilemma: closely monitor and control inventories to keep them as low as possible while providing acceptable customer service.  Average Aggregate Inventory Value: how much of the company’s total assets are invested in inventory?  Ford:6.825 billion  Sears: 4.039 billion
  13. 13. Inventory Measures  Weeks of Supply  Ford: 3.51 weeks  Sears: 9.2 weeks  Inventory Turnover (Turns)  Ford: 14.8 turns  Sears: 5.7 turns  GM: 8 turns  Toyota: 35 turns
  14. 14. Reasons Against Inventory  Non-value added costs  Opportunity cost  Complacency  Inventory deteriorates, becomes obsolete, lost, stolen, etc.
  15. 15. Inventory Costs  Procurement costs  Carrying costs  Out-of-stock costs
  16. 16. Procurement Costs  Order processing  Shipping  Handling  Purchasing cost: c(x)= $100 + $5x  Mfg. cost: c(x)=$1,000 + $10x
  17. 17. Carrying Costs  Capital (opportunity) costs  Inventory risk costs  Space costs  Inventory service costs
  18. 18. Out-of-Stock Costs  Lost sales cost  Back-order cost
  19. 19. Independent Demand  Independent demand items are finished products or parts that are shipped as end items to customers.  Forecasting plays a critical role  Due to uncertainty- extra units must be carried in inventory
  20. 20. Dependent Demand  Dependent demand items are raw materials, component parts, or subassemblies that are used to produce a finished product.  MRP systems---next week
  21. 21. Design of Inventory Mgmt. Systems: Micro Issues  Order Quantity Economic Order Quantity  Order Timing  Reorder Point
  22. 22. Objectives of Inventory Control  1) Maximize the level of customer service by avoiding understocking.  2) Promote efficiency in production and purchasing by minimizing the cost of providing an adequate level of customer service.
  23. 23. Balance in Inventory Levels  When should the company replenish its inventory, or when should the company place an order or manufacture a new lot?  How much should the company order or produce?  Next: Economic Order Quantity
  24. 24. Models for Inventory Management: EOQ  EOQ minimizes the sum of holding and setup costs  Q = 2DCo/Ch D = annual demand Co = ordering/setup costs Ch = cost of holding one unit of inventory
  25. 25. Seatide  EOQ = 2DCo/Ch D = annual demand = 6,000 Co = ordering/setup costs = $60 Ch = cost of holding one unit of inventory $3.00 x 24% = .72 720,000 2 x 6,000 x 60 .72 1,000 .72
  26. 26. Marginal Analysis Holding Costs $ Ordering Costs Units
  27. 27. Reorder Point  Quantity to which inventory is allowed to drop before replenishment order is made  Need to order EOQ at the Reorder Point: ROP = D X LT D = Demand rate per period LT = lead time in periods
  28. 28. Sawtooth Model level of inventory average inventory units Q t time
  29. 29. Q - System Inventory Control  based on reorder point - When inventory is depleted to ROP, order replenishment of quantity EOQ.
  30. 30. Order Quantities  when demand is smooth and continuous, can operate response- based system by determining  best quantity to replenish periodic demand (EOQ)  frequency of replenishment (ROP)  Reorder Point
  31. 31. Planning for Uncertainty  changing lead times  changing demand  Uncertainty creeps in:  Plug in safety stock Safety stock - allows manager to determine the probability of stock levels - based on desired customer service levels
  32. 32. Inventory Model Under Uncertainty reorder Qm point safety stock time
  33. 33. Models for Inventory Management: Quantity Discount  Basically EOQ with quantity discounts  To solve: 1. Write out the total cost equation 2. Solve EOQ at highest price and no discounts 3. If Qmin falls in a range with a lower price, recalculate EOQ assuming holding cost for that range. Call this Q2. 4. Evaluate the total cost equation at Q2 at the next highest price break point. OR Use a spreadsheet
  34. 34. P-System Periodic Review Method  an alternative to ROP/Q-system control is periodic review method  Q-system - each stock item reordered at different times - complex, no economies of scope or common prod./transport runs  P-system - inventory levels for multiple stock items reviewed at same time - can be reordered together  higher carrying costs - not optimum, but more practical
  35. 35. Using P-System  audit inventory level at interval (T)  quantity to place on order is difference between max. quantity (M) and amount on hand at time of review  management task - set optimal T and M to balance stock availability and cost  In ABC analysis, which items would use P-system???
  36. 36. Types of Inventory Systems  By Degree of Control required  often use grouping method, such as ABC
  37. 37. Classifying Inventory Items  ABC Classification (Pareto Principle)  A Items: very tight control, complete and accurate records, frequent review  B Items: less tightly controlled, good records, regular review  C Items: simplest controls possible, minimal records, large inventories, periodic review and reorder
  38. 38. Does ABC Classification Make Sense for an Assembler?  i.e. – Gateway Computers
  39. 39. Planning Supply Chain Activities Anticipatory - allocate supply to each warehouse based on the forecast Response-based - replenish inventory with order sizes based on specific needs of each warehouse
  40. 40. Anticipatory Inventory Control  determine requirements by forecasting demand for the next production run or purchase  establish current on-hand quantities  add appropriate safety stock based on desired stock availability levels and uncertainty demand levels  determine how much new production or purchase needed (total needed - on-hand)
  41. 41. Response-Based System  replenishment, production, or purchases of stock are made only when it has been signaled that there is a need for product downstream  requires shorter order cycle time, often more frequent, lower volume orders  determine stock requirements to meet only most immediate planning period (usually about 3 weeks)
  42. 42. Service Level Achieved •Item fill rate (IFR): the probability of filling an order for 1 item from current stock expected number of units out of stock/year 1- total annual demand •Weighted Average Fill Rate (WAFR): multiply IFR for each stock item on an order weighted by the ordering frequency for the item
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