RECOVERY FOR ENDURANCE ATHLETES Overtrained or under-recovered?
aims• Understand what recovery, over-reaching, over-training syndrome mean• Understand how they happen• Find out what steps we can take to optimise recovery and prevent over-training• Find out what we can monitor to identify over-training before it’s too late.
Recovery: key defining features(Kallus and Kellmann, 2000)• Process in time, dependent on type and duration of training stress• Depends on reduction of stress, change of stress, or a break from stress• Specific to individual and depends on individual appraisal• Can be passive, active or pro-active• Closely tied to situational conditions
AIS: $17 million recovery and swim centreQAS: $10 million recovery centre in 2008US Olympic Training Centre, ColoradoSprings
Over-reaching• Accumulation of training and/or non-training stress• Short-term decrement in performance capacity• Restoration of performance may take several days to several weeks• Functional vs non-functional• Jeukendreup: performance plus mood disturbance
Overtraining• Accumulation of training and/or non-training stress• Long-term performance decrement• Restoration of performance can take several weeks to months
Overtraining symptoms may include• Depressed mood • Loss of appetite• General apathy • Increased resting heart• Decreased self esteem rate• Emotional instability • Increased vulnerability• Impaired performance to injury • Hormonal changes• Restlessness • Lack of• Irritability supercompensation• Disturbed sleep • Susceptibility to• Weight loss infection and depressed• Fatigue immune response
Facets of over-reaching/training• Physiological• Biochemical – No single marker diagnostic – Reduced sympathetic nervous system response (adrenal fatigue)• Psychological – Altered mood states• Immunological
PRE-REQUISITES FOR ADAPTATION• Training – Intensity – Volume – Frequency• Next session timed with peak of supercompensation part of curve ie allow time for recovery and “overshoot”• Re-set baseline at higher level• Athlete healthy
Sport Social Work Friends Study HealthFinite Family Travelcapacity Growth MoneyCoping Positivemechanisms Stress effects Negative effects Stress
Monitoring Training• Heart rate : – average, – %max, – %lactate threshold – Time in different zones• Run/swim pace, TT• Power: IF, NP, TSS, CTL• Time• Distance, Speed
Psychological measures• POMS, cumbersome, difficult to interpret• TQR, similar to RPE scale• DALDA, self administered, sensitive to over- training• Evidence that psychological changes are evident early in overtraining• Key is to pick up over-reaching/training before it is established, with a test that doesn’t worsen fatigue or training stress
DALDA• Daily analysis of life demands for athletes• Self reported stress index – Sources: sport and non-sport – Symptoms• Identifies sources of stress• Identifies changes in stress levels, both excessive and inadequate training stress• Understood by Year 6 students
DALDA PART AStress source Worse than normal Normal Better than normalDietHome lifeSchool/college/workFriendsTraining & exerciseClimateSleepRecreationHealth
DALDA Part B: Symptoms Muscle pains Weight Technique Throat Tiredness Internal Need for a rest Unexplained aches Supplementary work Technique power Boredom Enough sleep Recovery time Between sessions recovery Irritability General weakness
DALDA Part BInterestArgumentsSkin rashesCongestionTraining effortTemperSwellingsLikeabilityRunning nose
Adaptation vs overtraining• Majority of body’s resources dealing with training loads• Resistance to other stresses reduced• Maximum adaptation: baseline number of sources and symptoms reported as “worse than normal”• Acute overload: transient increase, reduces next day• Over-reaching: score remains elevated for 4 days. Need to reduce training.
Other benefits• Jet lag monitoring• Undertraining• Taper/Peaking – Worse than normal reduces, better than normal increases
Does it work??• Cyclists (Halson et al, 2002) – overtrained for middle 2 weeks of 6 week block – Trained 7 days, tested 5 days (V02 max, 1 hr TT, Intermittent max test (2x 10min intervals) – Doubled training volume, all in HR Zone 3,4,5 – Lower V02max after 2nd week only, incr RPE – Lower max power – TT performance 10% worse, – No change lactate, fuel used, hormone levels – Increase DALDA scores 3-7 days into intensive training
Does it work?• Triathletes – Overreached, training increased 290% – DALDA, 5 bound test increased in association with reduced 3km run TT and 3 day average training load. – No change in submax HR, lactate, between groups
Conclusion• Psychological measures are useful non- invasive, non exerting measure to detect early stages of over-reaching/overtraining• My proposal:
Stretching• No studies looking at passive stretching and recovery• Anecdotal evidence: reduces sensation of muscle tightness and soreness• Sustained stretches 30secs+
Active recovery• Low intensity aerobic exercise• Helps lactate clearance (likely to clear anyway by next session)• Expends energy• Impractical/unattractive for most endurance athletes• Incorporate walk at end of session?
Massage• Reduces muscle force production, increased confusion, decreased vigor on POMS• Reduced muscle soreness• Decreased DOMS symptoms, CK release, muscle soreness, swelling. No change flexibility or strength• Improved recovery HRV, diastolic BP• No change lactate clearance, better fatigue index on Wingate test
Massage• Recovery of HRV and diastolic blood pressure• Decreased soreness biceps after eccentric exercise. No change strength or flexibility• Decreased soreness hamstring.• Lack of vigor and increased confusion post- massage, decreased quads activation.• Improved immune function
Contrast/cold immersion evidence• Varied findings:• Lactate clearance, decreased HR, no change in sprint performance in Rugby players• Lactate clearance in cyclists• better performance sprint & TT over 5 days cycling with cold and contrast
Contrast/cold immersion evidence• No change leg power, HR, temperature. Better perceived recovery and “lighter legs” in soccer players with cold/active recovery• Cyclists: no change TT performance, lactate, inflammatory markers. Increased immune response with cold. Perception of recovery better with cold• Basketball: cold > stretch and CHO > compression for sprint and jump
Cold and contrast protocols• Cold: 1 minute cold immersion, 2 minutes standing. Repeat x 4-5• Contrast: 2 minutes hot, 1 minute cold x 4-5. Finish on cold• Don’t use: – cold or virus, – bruised, – heart disease, – recent injury
Compression• Very mixed findings on effect of compression garments. Variety of brands tested.• Different protocols: – Submax and max running – Eccentric muscle damage (box jump plyos)• UK: reduced deficit in jump performance, quads strength, better muscle pain scores, no change in creatine kinase• Charles Sturt: no change repeat sprint, bounding, muscle strength, HR, RPE, lactate, CK. Better muscle pain scores
Recuperative• Yoga – Shifts ANS to parasympathetic, changes HRV – Improves quality of next sleep• Meditation – Reduces stress hormone levels – Decreased blood pressure, stress levels – Structural changes in brain stress centre
Sleep• Need 6.5-8.5 hours per night• 3-5 90 minute cycles of REM and non-REM sleep• Stage 3 sleep: release of growth hormones from pituitary gland, immune system response. Time for fighting disease and tissue repair.
Sleep tips• Turn clocks away from sleeping position• Turn off mobile phone• Don’t work in bed: sleep or sex only• Reduce caffeine late in day• Avoid high protein food and large meals a few hours before bed• Develop consistent schedule, slow down 30 mins before bed• Cool room• Naps : 20 minutes at 2pm• Milk and sit in dark if can’t sleep
Shift workers• Nap at work• Avoid morning light – Drive straight home to bed – Wear sunglasses• Make arrangements to sleep – Family – Room – appointments• Schedule a recovery day
SUMMARY• Nutrition• Ice bath/contrast• Compression after session• Massage when you feel necessary• Stretching when you feel tight• Stimulate parasympathetic nervous system with relaxation strategies• Be aware of signs of poor recovery and make changes early