Singapore	  &	  	  The	  Warming	  Climate	  An Island Surrounded by Change01 June 2013A Brief Backgrounder by Parivartin
Singapore	  &	  The	  Warming	  Climate	  Climate Change is one global trend that is guaranteed to impact everyperson on t...
Parivartin explores the impact of major global trends on organizationsfrom nation-states and political parties to multi-na...
Singapore:	  The	  “Monaco	  of	  the	  East”	  5.1 Million People, Highest Millionaires Per Capita, Highest GDP Per Capita
City-­‐State’s	  Achievements	  (Highlights)	  •  Trade: Despite being a City-State, it is the 15th largest trading partne...
Singapore	  &	  The	  Warming	  Climate	  Change is coming to Singapore with…1.  Rain, Floods, and Raising Sea Levels2.  T...
Part	  1.	  Rains,	  Floods	  &	  Raising	  Sea	  Level	  
Singapore’s	  Relationship	  	  with	  its	  Coastline	  At Risk with Climate Change:•  Land Reclamation…Goes Underwater?•...
Singapore’s	  Increased	  its	  size	  by	  ~20%	  	  using	  Land	  Reclamation	  As of 2011, there are 4 more reclamatio...
But,	  Key	  Parts	  of	  Singapore	  are	  only	  2m	  Above	  Sea	  Level…	  Major Economics assets just 2m above sea le...
Salt	  Water	  Intruding	  to	  	  Water	  Reservoirs?	  •  Due to their proximity to the ocean, Rising seas threatenSinga...
Flash	  Floods	  2010-­‐2012	  In the past three years,Singapore has suffered ahigher incidence of flashflooding (over 20 ...
Arctic	  Challenge	  to	  Singapore	  Part	  2.	  Less	  Icy	  Arctic:	  	  Threat	  to	  Singapore’s	  Economy?	  
Shipping’s	  Role	  in	  	  the	  Singaporean	  Economy	  “Singapore’s strategic location at the entrance to theStrait of ...
Climate’s	  Change	  on	  	  Shipping	  Routes	  •  Amount of Arctic sea ice isshrinking each year•  Arctic sea ice will s...
Northern	  Sea	  Route	  (NSR)	  v.	  Singapore	  
Dramatic	  Routes	  Opening	  in	  the	  Arctic	  	  by	  Mid-­‐Century	  “Common	  open-­‐water	  ships	  will	  be	  abl...
NSR	  v.	  Singapore	  Route	  •  US National Intelligence Council predicts that as soon as thisyear (2013), seasonally ic...
Onwards	  Singapore!	  
Onwards	  Singapore!	  Climate Change is not only a real phenomenon, but one withreal economic for every country, corporat...
Sources	  1/2	  Slide #4•  http://www.flickr.com/photos/acdovier/7568916474/sizes/c/in/photostream/Slide #5•  Wikipedia co...
Source	  2/2	  Slide 15•  http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/ezra-klein/files/2012/08/AP081208024026.jpg•  Brad Plumer, “...
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Singapore and the Warming Climate

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The following is a brief backgrounder on the impact of the changing global climate on the city-state of Singapore.

The backgrounder provides a brief overview of 1) the direct threat of the rising sea level to the tiny city-sate island which is 20% reclaimed land; 2) and, also an economic threat to Singapore’s status of as a port due to the the opening of the Arctic passages caused by Climate Change.

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Singapore and the Warming Climate

  1. 1. Singapore  &    The  Warming  Climate  An Island Surrounded by Change01 June 2013A Brief Backgrounder by Parivartin
  2. 2. Singapore  &  The  Warming  Climate  Climate Change is one global trend that is guaranteed to impact everyperson on the planet. While most analysis focus on the environmentalissues, there must be more focus on how countries must handle newchallenges as well as opportunities brought on by Climate Change.This Backgrounder on Climate Change in Singapore is but a minisculeexploration on the policy issues that will face countries all over the world asClimate Change impacts infrastructure, agriculture, and economicconcerns throughout the world over.
  3. 3. Parivartin explores the impact of major global trends on organizationsfrom nation-states and political parties to multi-national corporations andcommunities.Global trends that we explore include Demographic Transition, Energy,Raise of the Rest, Climate Change, Science and Technology Studies (STS),and more.Learn more at http://Parivartin.comThe principal of Parivartin, Daniel Riveong, is the lead analyst forParivartin. He is based in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
  4. 4. Singapore:  The  “Monaco  of  the  East”  5.1 Million People, Highest Millionaires Per Capita, Highest GDP Per Capita
  5. 5. City-­‐State’s  Achievements  (Highlights)  •  Trade: Despite being a City-State, it is the 15th largest trading partner with the US•  Energy: Top three export refining centers worldwide•  Financial Services: Financial center of South East Asia, with USD 1.1 trillion in assetsunder management in Singapore•  Biotechnology: GlaxoSmithKline, Pfizer, Merck and others have set-up offices andplants in Singapore.•  Education: Top universities in the region, and also a host to INSEAD Asia Campus,University of Chicago, Yale, New York University Tisch School of the Arts
  6. 6. Singapore  &  The  Warming  Climate  Change is coming to Singapore with…1.  Rain, Floods, and Raising Sea Levels2.  Threat as Global Shipping Hub
  7. 7. Part  1.  Rains,  Floods  &  Raising  Sea  Level  
  8. 8. Singapore’s  Relationship    with  its  Coastline  At Risk with Climate Change:•  Land Reclamation…Goes Underwater?•  Areas like the Business District at Risk•  Salt Water into Water Reservoirs
  9. 9. Singapore’s  Increased  its  size  by  ~20%    using  Land  Reclamation  As of 2011, there are 4 more reclamation underway with 2 more planned.
  10. 10. But,  Key  Parts  of  Singapore  are  only  2m  Above  Sea  Level…  Major Economics assets just 2m above sea level: ChangiInternational Airport, Business District, Petrochemical Plants,Ports, & Shipyards.
  11. 11. Salt  Water  Intruding  to    Water  Reservoirs?  •  Due to their proximity to the ocean, Rising seas threatenSingapores coastal reservoirs, such as Kranji, Sarimbun andSeletar (above).•  Salt water entering these reservoirs will make the waterundrinkable
  12. 12. Flash  Floods  2010-­‐2012  In the past three years,Singapore has suffered ahigher incidence of flashflooding (over 20 flashfloods).The floods have even hitthe retail andentertainment hub ofSingapore, Orchard Road(pictured right).These series of flashfloods point to whatincreased rain fall due toClimate Change couldlook like for Singapore.
  13. 13. Arctic  Challenge  to  Singapore  Part  2.  Less  Icy  Arctic:    Threat  to  Singapore’s  Economy?  
  14. 14. Shipping’s  Role  in    the  Singaporean  Economy  “Singapore’s strategic location at the entrance to theStrait of Malacca, through which roughly one-third ofglobal sea commerce passes each year, has helped itbecome one of the most important shipping centersin Asia. “•  Second busiest port in the world after Shanghai•  14th Largest exporter worldwide•  15th Largest importer worldwide
  15. 15. Climate’s  Change  on    Shipping  Routes  •  Amount of Arctic sea ice isshrinking each year•  Arctic sea ice will soondisappear all togetherduring the summer months•  Climate change will likelyopen up two new routesover Russia and anotherover Canada through theArctic OceanCurrent extent of Arctic sea ice. The lineshows the average minimum extent from1979 to 2010. (NASA Goddard Flight Center)
  16. 16. Northern  Sea  Route  (NSR)  v.  Singapore  
  17. 17. Dramatic  Routes  Opening  in  the  Arctic    by  Mid-­‐Century  “Common  open-­‐water  ships  will  be  able  to  transit  the  Northern  Sea  Route  (NSR)  during  September  by  mid-­‐century  (2040-­‐2059)”  •  Each photo shows Canada on the left and Russia on the right
  18. 18. NSR  v.  Singapore  Route  •  US National Intelligence Council predicts that as soon as thisyear (2013), seasonally ice-free Arctic could open up andallow for shipping•  These ice-free season would lead to decrease in volume ofshipping for four months in a year for Singapore•  For Asia, ports would shift from Singapore to closer to theArctic: Hong Kong, Shanghai, and Tokyo.“When the Northern Sear Route opens up, transiting from theNSR above Russia between North Atlantic and the North Pacificwould trim about 5000 nautical miles and a week’s sailing timefrom the use of the Suez Canal and the Malacca Straits.”
  19. 19. Onwards  Singapore!  
  20. 20. Onwards  Singapore!  Climate Change is not only a real phenomenon, but one withreal economic for every country, corporation, and person onEarth.For Singapore, Climate Change could mean:•  Land erosion and increased flooding•  Salt Water Intrusion to their water reservoir•  Threat to Singapore as one of the major hubs forinternational trade.Singaporean Government has built a 21st Century Powerhouseout of a small city-state in less than 40 years. It is very wellequipped to handle the impact of Climate Change.
  21. 21. Sources  1/2  Slide #4•  http://www.flickr.com/photos/acdovier/7568916474/sizes/c/in/photostream/Slide #5•  Wikipedia contributors, "File:Supertree Grove, Gardens by theBay, Singapore - 20120712-02.jpg," Wikipedia, The FreeEncyclopedia, 12 July 2012, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Supertree_Grove,_Gardens_by_the_Bay,_Singapore_-_20120712-02.jpg.•  Monetary Authority of Ssingapore, “Wealth Management andInsurance,” 27 February 2013, http://www.mas.gov.sg/singapore-financial-centre/overview/wealth-management-and-insurance.aspx.Slide #7•  Adine Chin, “10 Ways to Love Singapore,” Penny’s Daybook,August 2010, http://www.pennysdaybook.com/2010/08/10-ways-to-love-singapore/.Slide #9•  Marine Conservation Goup, Nature Society, “Singapore Water -Unveiling Our Seas,“ November 2003, http://singaporewaters.nss.org.sg/Gallery.htm.Slide #10•  Ria Tan, “Rising seas and Singapore, on Blog Action Day,” WildShores of Singapore, 14 October 2009, http://wildshores.blogspot.com/2009/10/rising-seas-and-singapore-on-blog.html.•  “Sea Level Rise Explorer,” http://www.globalwarmingart.com/sealevel?lat=4.741&lng=127.002Slide #11•  Arti Mulchand, “Is Spore ready for the next big flood?,” StraitsTimes, 24 June 2007, http://www.straitstimes.com/print/News/Story/STIStory_132260.html20070506/070624-2.htm.•  Singapore Ministry of the Environment, Singapore’s InitialNational Communication: Under The United Nations FrameworkConvention On Climate Change,” August 2000, http://app2.nea.gov.sg/data/cmsresource/20101124427576877112.pdf.•  http://www.flickr.com/photos/mystical-mii/5893808008/sizes/o/Slide #12•  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2010-12_Singapore_floods•  Loufu, “Orchard Road Flooding!”, Singapore Bikes, 16 June 2010,http://www.singaporebikes.com/forums/showthread.php/291932-Orchard-Road-Flooding!?s=b615d994388336a8a63c7439978aa5ba&p=6473111#post6473111.Slide #13•  http://www.flickr.com/photos/gsfc/7163119469/sizes/l/in/photostream/Slide #14•  “Singapore Economy”, Economy Watch, 18 March 2010, http://www.economywatch.com/world_economy/singapore/?page=full.•  “Singapore’s strategic location at the entrance to the Strait ofMalacca, through which roughly one-third of global sea commercepasses each year, has helped it become one of the mostimportant shipping centers in Asia”, Petro-Min Pipeline, Jan-March 2010, http://www.pm-pipeliner.safan.com/mag/ppl0310/cr58.pdf.
  22. 22. Source  2/2  Slide 15•  http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/ezra-klein/files/2012/08/AP081208024026.jpg•  Brad Plumer, “Arctic sea ice just hit a record low. Here’s why itmatters,” Washington Post, 28 August 2012, http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/wonkblog/wp/2012/08/28/arctic-sea-ice-just-hit-a-record-low-heres-why-it-matters/.Slide 16•  Malte Humpert, "The Future of the Northern Sea Route - A GoldenWaterway or a Niche Trade Route,” The arctic institute: Center forCircumpolar Security Studies, 15 September 2011, http://www.thearcticinstitute.org/2011/10/future-of-northern-sea-route-golden_13.html•  Mia Bennett, “Study: New Trans-Arctic shipping routes navigableby midcentury,” Foreign Policy Association, 04 March 2013,http://foreignpolicyblogs.com/2013/03/04/study-new-trans-arctic-shipping-routes-navigable-by-midcentury/•  http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/wonkblog/files/2013/03/arctic-crossings.png.Slide 18•  Ho, Joshua H, "The Arctic Meltdown and Its Implication for Portsand Shipping in Asia,” in Arctic Security in an Age of ClimateChange, ed. James Kraska (Cambridge University Press, 2011),33, http://books.google.com.my/books?id=b-U1To97zqsC&pg=PA33&lpg=PA33&dq=%22The+Arctic+Meltdown+and+Its+Implication+for+Ports+and+Shipping+in+Asia.%22&source=bl&ots=IKycuRuxUT&sig=71tYdazzWy_qg8qMAlwD4DUtRbw&hl=en&sa=X&ei=OUJ1UYqGNNDjrAe7_oDABA&ved=0CEcQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=%22The%20Arctic%20Meltdown%20and%20Its%20Implication%20for%20Ports%20and%20Shipping%20in%20Asia.%22&f=falseSlide 19•  Wikipedia contributors, "File:Glaciers and Icebergs at CapeYork.jpg," Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 2 September 2005,http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Glaciers_and_Icebergs_at_Cape_York.jpg

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