Macvarish Uses and Abuses of Biology 28 March 2014
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Macvarish Uses and Abuses of Biology 28 March 2014

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Presentation by Dr Jan Macvarish, entitled The Uses and Abuses of Biology: Neuroscience, Parenting and British Family Policy, given to the conference of the same name on Friday 28 March 2014, ...

Presentation by Dr Jan Macvarish, entitled The Uses and Abuses of Biology: Neuroscience, Parenting and British Family Policy, given to the conference of the same name on Friday 28 March 2014, Birkbeck, London University. The conference was organised by the Centre for Parenting Culture Studies, the University of Kent.

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Macvarish Uses and Abuses of Biology 28 March 2014 Macvarish Uses and Abuses of Biology 28 March 2014 Presentation Transcript

  • Biologising parenting: Neuroscience discourse and British family policy Ellie Lee and Jan Macvarish, University of Kent and Pam Lowe, Aston University Funded by the Faraday Institute’s ‘Uses and Abuses of Biology’ programme
  • background
  • Neuroscience can now explain why early conditions are so crucial: effectively, our brains are largely formed by what we experience in early life…scientific discoveries suggest it is nurture rather than nature that plays the lead role in creating the human personality…It has been said that ‘the greatest gift for a baby is maternal responsiveness’. The more positive stimuli a baby is given, the more brain cells and synapses it will be able to develop. ‘Early Intervention: Good Parents, Great Kids, Better Citizens’ Graham Allen MP and Iain Duncan Smith MP
  • The early years of life are a crucial period of change; alongside adolescence this is a key moment for brain development. As our understanding of the science of development improves, it becomes clearer and clearer how the events that happen to children and babies lead to structural changes that have life- long ramifications. Science is helping us to understand how love and nurture by caring adults is hard wired into the brains of children. Sally Davies, Chief Medical Officer, foreword to ‘The 1001 Critical Days: The Importance of the Conception to Age Two Period
  • ‘structural changes that have life-long ramifications’
  • ‘hard wired into the brains of children’
  • ‘cycle of harm is perpetuated’
  • methods
  • key conclusions
  • 1. Brain claims enter a policy context which is already convinced that something must be done about parents.
  • From 1997 - ‘parenting’ occurred 1566 times (brain occurred 396 times) 2003 - first direct reference to the brain - ‘Birth to Three Matters’
  • ‘Parenting’ is discussed directly as a problem Parenting support; Parenting order; Parenting intervention; Parenting issues; Parenting programmes; Parenting intervention.
  • ‘Parenting’ is talked of as a skill Parenting style; Parenting skills; Parenting competencies; Parenting strategy; Parenting capacity; Parenting objectives.
  • ‘Parenting’ should happen in partnership with experts Parenting education; Parenting facilitators; Parenting classes; Parenting Institute; The Science of Parenting; Parenting guides.
  • ‘early intervention is a cause in search of an argument’
  • 2. Although challenged elsewhere as lacking scientific foundation, the same brain claims are imported and repeated in the British context.
  • ‘neuroscientism, not neuroscience’
  • unique period of brain growth
  • By the age of 3, the young child has around twice the number of neurons of an adult – making the early years critical for the development of the brain, language, social, emotional and motor skills. 2010 ‘Healthy Lives, Healthy People’, p18. No source cited for the claim.
  • Children’s brains develop faster in the first two years than at any other stage and they learn more quickly. 2007 ‘Children's Plan 0-7 Expert Group Report’, p10. No source cited for claim.
  • ‘a critical period’
  • Recent research in neuroscience also shows that the first three years of a child’s life are critical in terms of the development of the brain’s capacity to learn both cognitive and social and emotional skills… 2007 ‘Policy Review of Children and Young People’ Source cited for claim: ‘The importance of caregiver-child interactions for the survival and healthy development of young children – A review’, World Health Organization, 2004
  • ‘stimulating environments’
  • Many parents are doing a brilliant job, but in some homes the child is strapped in a pushchair and pointed at a blank wall during those precious, irreplaceable first two or three years. It is a wasted opportunity, for which they and we pay the price over successive years. 2008 ‘Early Intervention’, First Edition, p111. No source cited for the claim.
  • 3. Brain claims serve a rhetorical and metaphorical function, opening up the parent-child relationship to earlier and more intimate interventions.
  • Pregnancy, birth and the first 24 months can be tough for every mother and father, and some parents may find it hard to provide the care and attention their baby needs. But it can also be a chance to affect great change, as pregnancy and the birth of a baby is a critical ‘window of opportunity’ when parents are especially receptive to offers of advice and support. 2013 ‘The 1001 Critical Days’ p5.
  • 4. They intensify the demands on parents by threatening lifelong consequences and reinterpret the ordinary practices of loving families as meaningful only for brain development.
  • Evidence on neurological development shows how babies build connections in their brain which enable the development of speech and language, self-confidence and good relationships with other children and adults…It is imperative that children’s healthy development in their first years of life is supported…Parents are informed about the importance of talking to their child and following the child’s lead in their physical play whilst developing the parents’ understanding of brain development. 2011 ‘The Early Years: Foundations for life, health and learning’, p21. No source cited for claim.
  • The development of a baby’s brain is affected by the attachment to their parents and analysis of neglected children’s brains has shown that their brain growth is significantly reduced. Where babies are often left to cry, their cortisol levels are increased and this can lead to a permanent increase in stress hormones later in life, which can impact on mental health. Supporting parents during this difficult transition period is crucial to improving outcomes for young children. 2010 ‘The Foundation Years’, p41. Source cited for claims, Perry, B. (2002) Childhood experience and the expression of genetic potential: what childhood neglect tells us about nature and nurture. Brain and Mind 3: 79–100.
  • 5. Brain claims emphasise emotions, not IQ, as fundamentally determinate of future health, wealth and happiness, thereby placing the emotions of new mothers under considerable pressure and scrutiny.
  • The CHPP [Child Health Promotion Programme] needs to reflect new evidence that has emerged about neurological development and the importance of forming a strong child–parent attachment in the first years of life. It should also incorporate the information that we have about the adverse effect that maternal anxiety and depression in pregnancy can have on child development. A child’s brain develops rapidly in the first two years of life, and is influenced by the emotional and physical environment as well as by genetic factors. Early interactions directly affect the way the brain is wired, and early relationships set the ‘thermostat’ for later control of the stress response. This all underlines the significance of pregnancy and the first years of life, and the need for mothers and fathers to be supported during this time. 2008 ‘Child Health Promotion Programme: Pregnancy and the First Five Years of Life’, p9. No source cited for claim.
  • A child’s experience and environment – both in the womb and in early life – lay the foundation for life. Mothers and fathers are the most important influences on a child’s well-being and development. Loving, caring and secure parenting, as well as good nutrition and protection from toxic substances such as tobacco, are essential for a child’s growth, well-being and development. These factors have a direct and lasting impact on a child’s physical development (particularly neurological development) and on his or her future health, learning and behaviour (see Part 2). In recent years, advances in neuroscience have increased our understanding of the links between early brain development and later life outcomes, and have shown the importance of providing very young children with consistent, positive and loving care. 2011 ‘Preparation for birth and beyond: A resource pack’. Section 2/4/29. No source cited for claim.
  • ‘parental determinism’
  • 6. Continuity and change in official concerns
  • ‘old wine in new bottles?’
  • what is new?
  • • intensified focus on intimate interactions between the parent and child
  • • a dramatized focus on maternal mood and emotion
  • • an expanded concern with the practices of a larger proportion of the parenting population
  • biologised parenting?
  • Further information about the project and its findings can be found at: http://blogs.kent.ac.uk/parentingculturestudies/research- themes/early-intervention/current-projects/ Project findings are also discussed in more detail in the book Parenting Culture Studies (Palgrave 2014): http://www.palgrave.com/products/title.aspx?pid=656367 Further information about the ‘Uses and Abuses of Biology’ research programme can be found at: http://faraday.st-edmunds.cam.ac.uk/uab/