Parenting in intercountry adoption The role of “expert knowledge”  in creating transnational/transracial adoptive families...
In this presentation… <ul><li>Introduction: some figures and facts </li></ul><ul><li>The adoption process: experts entitle...
Introduction: Transnational adoption in Spain Until last quarter of 1900s: Spain was a “country of origin”  2004: Spain be...
Introduction: Immigration in Spain <ul><li>Until last quarter of 1900s: </li></ul><ul><li>Emigration > Immigration </li></...
Transnational adoption in Spain Monitoring Parents: science, evidence, experts and the new parenting culture   University ...
The case of Catalonia Monitoring Parents: science, evidence, experts and the new parenting culture   University of Kent, S...
The case of Catalonia Monitoring Parents: science, evidence, experts and the new parenting culture   University of Kent, S...
Transnational adoption: the process in Catalonia Monitoring Parents: science, evidence, experts and the new parenting cult...
Compulsory training   <ul><li>In the application form prospective parents are to choose the country, </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
Compulsory training <ul><li>Transraciality often addressed from the parents’ point of view   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(“lost ...
Transracial adoption in Spain? <ul><li>“ Transracial adoptions” are not even named in Spain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of “...
How to become a family from the “experts” point of view <ul><li>No specific training for psychologists (and social workers...
Thank you for your attention! Diana Marre Beatriz San Román [email_address] Monitoring Parents: science, evidence, experts...
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Beatriz san-roman kent presentation

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  • Introducción: sobre AFIN, sobre el área de estudio de Diana (¿cómo se dice “reproducción asistida” asisted reproductive technologies and subrogate motherhoods?) y el mío…
  • The quiet immigration y la otra inmigración: coincidentes en el tiempo
  • Cat dio la pauta
  • Cat dio la pauta
  • TRAINNING!!!! TRAINING NO MANDATORY. SIN FORMACION ESPECIFICA
  • Elderly people, human resources in a company, disabled people Las familias han buscado convertirse en expertos, más abiertos que los técnicos a pensarse de otra manera. Más diálogo con las familias.
  • Beatriz san-roman kent presentation

    1. 1. Parenting in intercountry adoption The role of “expert knowledge” in creating transnational/transracial adoptive families Beatriz San Román Diana Marre Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (Autonomous University of Barcelona)
    2. 2. In this presentation… <ul><li>Introduction: some figures and facts </li></ul><ul><li>The adoption process: experts entitled to evaluate and “train” adopting families </li></ul><ul><li>Contents of “mandatory training” for prospective adoptive parents </li></ul><ul><li>How to become a family from the “expertise knowledge” perspective </li></ul>Monitoring Parents: science, evidence, experts and the new parenting culture - University of Kent, Sept. 13 th -14 th 2011
    3. 3. Introduction: Transnational adoption in Spain Until last quarter of 1900s: Spain was a “country of origin” 2004: Spain becomes 2nd receiving country for transnational adoption. 1st one in relative figures (Sellman, 2006). Monitoring Parents: science, evidence, experts and the new parenting culture University of Kent, Sept. 13 th -14 th 2011 <ul><li>Source: Ministery of Labour and Social Issues. Yearbook 2004 </li></ul>
    4. 4. Introduction: Immigration in Spain <ul><li>Until last quarter of 1900s: </li></ul><ul><li>Emigration > Immigration </li></ul><ul><li>“ White and homogeneous” </li></ul>2004: EU fostered little more than one and a half million immigrants, 610.000 of which –around 40%– remained in Spain . Spain became the second receiving country of immigration (after the USA) Monitoring Parents: science, evidence, experts and the new parenting culture University of Kent, Sept. 13 th -14 th 2011
    5. 5. Transnational adoption in Spain Monitoring Parents: science, evidence, experts and the new parenting culture University of Kent, Sept. 13 th -14 th 2011 <ul><li>1996: </li></ul><ul><li>A new law of Minor Legal Protection was approved. </li></ul><ul><li>1997: </li></ul><ul><li>The regions of Madrid and Catalonia decided not to accept more applications to domestic adoption due to the lack of Spanish children given up for </li></ul><ul><li>adoption. </li></ul><ul><li>First statistics regarding international adoption are published. </li></ul><ul><li>Recorded intercountry adoptions doubled between 1998 and 2000 and reached 5,541 by 2004 . </li></ul>Central Authorities of Intercountry Adoption in Spain
    6. 6. The case of Catalonia Monitoring Parents: science, evidence, experts and the new parenting culture University of Kent, Sept. 13 th -14 th 2011 <ul><li>2004: </li></ul><ul><li>Catalans were the 16% of Spanish’s inhabitants but they adopted 31% of children internationally adopted in Spain. </li></ul><ul><li>2006: </li></ul><ul><li>In Catalonia 52% of families that applied for an intercountry adoption were involuntarily childless, </li></ul><ul><li>43% had children </li></ul><ul><li>and only 35% had done some ARTtreatment. </li></ul>Population, children born and intercountry adoptions in 2004 16 % 31 %
    7. 7. The case of Catalonia Monitoring Parents: science, evidence, experts and the new parenting culture University of Kent, Sept. 13 th -14 th 2011 <ul><li>2004: </li></ul><ul><li>Catalans were the 16% of Spanish’s inhabitants but they adopted 31% of children internationally adopted in Spain. </li></ul><ul><li>2006: </li></ul><ul><li>In Catalonia 52% of families that applied for an intercountry adoption were involuntarily childless, 43% had children and only 35% had done some ARTtreatment. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Transnational adoption: the process in Catalonia Monitoring Parents: science, evidence, experts and the new parenting culture University of Kent, Sept. 13 th -14 th 2011
    9. 9. Compulsory training <ul><li>In the application form prospective parents are to choose the country, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>but NO difference in training depending on the country </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contents of compulsory training: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The difference between a biological and an adopted child. Parents grief </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(“saying goodbye to the ideal child to welcome the real child”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The adaptation and “the adopted child’s backup” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The origins revelation” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Different meanings to “the child’s origins” </li></ul></ul></ul>Monitoring Parents: science, evidence, experts and the new parenting culture University of Kent, Sept. 13 th -14 th 2011
    10. 10. Compulsory training <ul><li>Transraciality often addressed from the parents’ point of view </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(“lost of anonymity”, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ They told us that it was needed to be clear in our minds that our family physiognomy would change forever because of adoption, that we should discuss it between us [she and her husband] and our families, and nothing else”. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ We spent the whole morning in a role play, in small groups, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>and it was about how we would react if, during their adolescence, </li></ul><ul><li>our children became aware they were adopted. It was really Kafkaesque, if you keep in mind that all of them were to be Chinese girls”. </li></ul>Monitoring Parents: science, evidence, experts and the new parenting culture University of Kent, Sept. 13 th -14 th 2011
    11. 11. Transracial adoption in Spain? <ul><li>“ Transracial adoptions” are not even named in Spain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of “etnia” instead of “raza” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Those applying for an adoption in Vietnam have to keep in mind the ethnic characteristics of the children from this country”. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adoptive parents and practicioners: no direct reference of what it is like to have a non-white body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adoption produces “the cancellation of one identity and its replacement by another” (Yngvesson, 2009: 109). </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. How to become a family from the “experts” point of view <ul><li>No specific training for psychologists (and social workers) working in this field </li></ul><ul><li>Inspired by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The “clean break” (Hague Convention) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Attachment Theory (Bowlby, 1969) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exclusive parenthood and belonging </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nearly 2 decades after the first transnational processes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Families seem opener to re-think their families than most “experts”. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Dissenting families” find other spaces to comment and get advise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(usually through the Internet) </li></ul></ul></ul>Monitoring Parents: science, evidence, experts and the new parenting culture University of Kent, Sept. 13 th -14 th 2011
    13. 13. Thank you for your attention! Diana Marre Beatriz San Román [email_address] Monitoring Parents: science, evidence, experts and the new parenting culture University of Kent, Sept. 13 th -14 th 2011
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