Validty= results’ consistency and accuracy over time and place
Reliability is the consistency of your measurement, or the degree to which an instrument measures the same way each time it is used under the same condition with the same subjects
Action Research in ELT
Continuum of Research Methods Action Research Questionnaire Survey Research Interviews ELT RESEARCH Verbal reports METHODS Introspective Research Diary Studies Case Studies Qualitative Research Ethnographies
ACTION RESEARCH• Action Research can be defined as a combination of the terms ―action‖ and ―research.‖ Action research puts ideas into practice for the purpose of self-improvement and increasing knowledge about curriculum, teaching, and learning. The ultimate result is improvement in what happens in the classroom and school (Kemmis & McTaggert, 1982).• Action research is a systematic procedure done by teachers (or other individuals in an educational setting) to gather information about, and subsequently improve, the ways their particular educational setting operates, their teaching, and their student learning (Mills, 2011 ).• Action research is a systematic approach to investigation that enables people to find effective solutions to problems they confront in their everyday lives. It does not look for generalization but focuses on specific situations and localized solutions
Reasons Why Action Research is a Research An AR addresses questions of interest to other practitioners; An AR generates data; An AR contains analysis and interpretation.
What Differentiated ActionResearch from other Researches– it is carried out by the practitioner (classroom teachers);– it can be collaborative or individual;– it is situational (identification and solution of problems in a specific context);– it can be aimed at changing things (improving the current state of affairs). (Nunan, “Research Methods in Language Learning” (1992:17))
ACTION RESEARCH FEATURES• AR involves action in that it seeks to bring about change, specifically in local educational contexts.• AR is a research because it entails the collection and analysis of data.• AR is participatory and collaborative as it provides for collaborative investigation by teams of colleagues, practitioners and researchers.• AR is contextual, small-scale and localized—it identifies and investigates problems within a specific situation.
Action Research Procedures• Stage 1: Researchers identify, evaluate, and formulate a problem that is viewed as critical to their everyday teaching. This problem need not be restricted to a particular class but could involve a system change such as curriculum innovations in a school system.• Stage 2: Researchers consult with other interested parties— teachers, other researchers, and administrators—in order to focus the problem more clearly and perhaps suggest the cause of the problem. This stage is crucial because it involves the clarification of the objectives and assumptions of the study.• Stage 3: Researchers review research literature to find out what can be learned from comparable studies.• Stage 4: Based on their reading, researchers may modify or redefine the initial statement of the problem, which may take the form of a set of objectives or a testable hypothesis. They also explicitly state the assumptions underlying the project.
Action Research Procedures (cont.)• Stage 5: Researchers specify the research design including the participants, choice of materials, and procedures.• Stage 6: Researchers clarify how the project will be evaluated with an understanding that this evaluation will be continuous.• Stage 7: Researchers implement the project undertaking the data collection process.• Stage 8: Researchers analyze the data, draw inferences, and evaluate the project.
Data Collecting Methods Systematic Observation (With Observation Guide) Non-systematic Interview Question- naire DATA Learner-diaryCOLLECTION Documents Teacher-diary Written Test Oral Practice/Role-playing
Data Triangulation in ARRESEARCHERS TRIANGGULATION• Assigning some researchers to collect similar data so that the obtained data is “saturated” or constantsTIME TRIANGGULATION• Similar data are collected in different times along the research period.SPACE TRIANGGULATION• Collecting similar data from some different places.THEORETICAL TRIANGGULATIONComparing the obtained data to some different but interrelatedtheories (holistic approach)
As a process research which is naturalistic andtransformative (aims to make changes) the situationof an AR continuously changes. To keep itsreliability, the researcher needs to:1) Attach original data (e.g. interview transcript and field notes2) menggunakan lebih dari satu sumber data untuk mendapatkan data yang sama3) berkolaborasi dengan sejawat atau orang lain yang terkait.
AR Proposal OutlineI. Introduction A.Background B. Problem Statement C. Research Objectives D. Research SignificancesII. Review of Related Theories A. Literature Review B. Conceptual Framework C. Hypothesis (optional)
AR Proposal Outline (cont.)III. Research Methodology A. Research Method: Action Research B. Research Setting and Subjects Features C. Research Variables D. Action Plan (e.g. Lesson Plan) E. Data Types and Sources F. Data Collection technique G. Data Analysis technique H. Data Triangulation I. Research Procedure J. Bibliography
ReferencesMcKay, S. L. (2006). Researching second language classrooms. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., PublishersBurns. A. (2010). Doing action research in english language teaching: A guide for practitioners. New York: Routledge:Creswell, J. W. 2008. Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. New Jersey: PearsonDenscombe, M. (2010). The good research guide for small-scale social research projects. New York: McGraw-HillRoss, Kenneth N. (ed.). (2005). Educational research: Some basic concepts and terminology. Paris: International Institute for Educational Planning/ UNESCO.