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  • 1. WELCOME
  • 2. TOPIC
    • The microprocessor is sometimes referred to as the 'brain' of the personal computer
    • 6. responsible for the processing of the instructions which make up computer software.
    The key element of all computers, providing the mathematical and decision making ability
    They operate at ultra-fast speeds – doing over a billion operations every second
    Made up from a semiconductor, Silicon
    Current state-of-the-art uPs (Pentium, Athlon, SPARC, PowerPC) contain complex circuits consisting of tens of millions of transistors
  • 7. History
  • 8. Intel 4004
    • 1969
    • 9. Clock speed : 108 KHz
    • 10. Number of transistors: 2300
    • 11. 4-bit register and 4-bit data bus.
  • Intel 8008
    • 1972
    • 12. Clock speed : 800 KHz
    • 13. Number of transistor: 3500
    • 14. 8-bit register and 8-bit data bus.
  • Intel 8080
    • 1974
    • 15. Clock speed : 2 MHz
    • 16. Number of transistor: 4500
    • 17. 8-bit register and data bus.
  • Intel 8086
    • 1978
    • 18. Clock speed : 4.47 MHz
    • 19. Number of transistors: 29000
    • 20. 16-bit register and data bus.
  • Intel 8088
    • 1981
    • 21. Clock speed : 4,47 MHz
    • 22. Number of transistors: 29000
    • 23. 16-bit register and data bus.
    The worlds first PC ran on an Intel 8088 microprocessor
  • 24. Intel 286
    • 1982
    • 25. Clock speed: 12 MHz
    • 26. Number of transistor:134000
    • 27. 16-bit register and data bus.
  • Intel 386
    • 1985
    • 28. Clock speed: 16 MHz
    • 29. Number of transistors:275000
    • 30. 32-bit register and data bus.
  • Intel 486
    • 1989
    • 31. Clock speed: 25 MHz
    • 32. Number of transistor:1,200,000
    • 33. 32-bit register and data bus..
  • Intel Pentium
    • 1993
    • 34. Clock speed: 66 MHz
    • 35. Number of transistor:3,300,000
    • 36. 32-bit register and data bus.
  • Intel Pentium pro
    • 1995
    • 37. Clock speed: 200 MHz
    • 38. Number of transistor:5,500,000
    • 39. 32-bit register and data bus.
  • Intel Pentium ||
    • 1997
    • 40. Clock speed: 300 MHz
    • 41. Number of transistor:7,500,000
    • 42. 32-bit register and data bus.
  • Intel Pentium |||
    • 1999
    • 43. Clock speed: 500 MHz
    • 44. Number of transistor:9,500,000
    • 45. 64-bit register and data bus.
  • Intel Pentium 4
    • 2000
    • 46. Clock speed: 1 GHz
    • 47. Number of transistor:15,500,000
    • 48. 64-bit register and data bus.
  • Intel Pentium D
    • 2005
    • 49. Clock speed: 3.6 GHz
    • 50. Number of transistor:47,500,000
    • 51. 64-bit register and data bus.
  • Intel Core 2 / Quad
    • 2006/2007
    • 52. Clock speed: 3.6 GHz
    • 53. Number of transistor:214,500,000
    • 54. 64-bit register and data bus.
    As there are a great many variations in architecture between the different kinds of CPU, we shall begin by looking at a simplified model of the structure The simplified model consists of five parts, which are:
  • 59. Arithmetic & Logic Unit (ALU)
    • The part of the central processing unit that deals with operations such as addition, subtraction, and multiplication of integers and Boolean operations.
    • 60. It receives control signals from the control unit telling it to carry out these operations.
  • Addition and subtraction
    • These two tasks are performed by constructs of logic gates, such as half adders and full adders.
    • 61. While they may be termed 'adders', with the aid of they can also perform subtraction via use of inverters and 'two's complement' arithmetic.
  • Multiplication and division
    • In most modern processors, the multiplication and division of integer values is handled by specific floating-point hardware within the CPU.
    • 62. Earlier processors used either additional chips known as maths co-processors, or used a completely different method to perform the task.
  • Logical tests
    • logic gates are used within the ALU to perform a number of different logical tests, including seeing if an operation produces a result of zero.
  • Comparison
    • Comparison operations compare values in order to determine such things as whether one number is greater than, less than or equal to another.
    • 63. These operations can be performed by subtraction of one of the numbers from the other.
    • 64. It can be handled by the logic gates.
  • Bit shifting
    • Shifting operations move bits left or right within a word, with different operations filling the gaps created in different ways.
    • 65. This is accomplished via the use of a shift register
  • Control Unit
    • It is responsible for controlling much of the operation of the rest of the processor.
    • 66. It does this by issuing control signals to the other areas of the processor, instructing them on what should be performed next.
  • Decoder
    • This is used to decode the instructions that make up a program when they are being processed,
    • 67. To determine what actions must be taken in order to process them.
    • 68. These decisions are normally taken by looking at the of the instruction, together with the addressing mode used.
  • Timer or clock
    • The timer or clock ensures that all processes and instructions are carried out and completed at the right time.
    • 69. Pulses are sent to the other areas of the CPU at regular intervals and actions only occur when a pulse is detected.
    • 70. This ensures that the operations of the CPU are synchronised.
  • Control logic circuits
    • The control logic circuits are used to create the control signals themselves, which are then sent around the processor.
    • 71. These signals inform the arithmetic and logic unit and the register array what they actions and steps they should be performing, what data they should be using to perform said actions, and what should be done with the results.
  • Register Array
    • A register is a memory location within the CPU itself.
    • 72. It is designed to be quickly accessed for purposes of fast data retrieval.
    • 73. Processors normally contain a register array, which houses many such registers.
    • 74. These contain instructions, data and other values that may need to be quickly accessed during the execution of a program.
    • 75. Many different types of registers are common between most microprocessor designs. These are:
  • Program Counter (PC)
    • This register is used to hold the memory address of the next instruction that has to executed in a program.
    • 76. This is to ensure the CPU knows:1. at all times where it has reached 2. Is able to resume following an execution at the correct point 3.And the program is executed correctly.
  • Instruction Register (IR)
    • This is used to hold the current instruction in the processor while it is being decoded and executed, in order for the speed of the whole execution process to be reduced.
    • 77. This is because the time needed to access the instruction register is much less than continual checking of the memory location itself.
  • Accumulator (A, or ACC)
    • The accumulator is used to hold the result of operations performed by the arithmetic and logic unit
  • Memory Address Register
    • Used for storage of memory addresses, usually the addresses involved in the instructions held in the instruction register.
    • 78. The control unit then checks this register when needing to know which memory address to check or obtain data from.
  • Memory Buffer Register
    • When an instruction or data is obtained from the memory or elsewhere, it is first placed in the memory buffer register.
    • 79. The next action to take is then determined and carried out, and the data is moved on to the desired location.
  • Flag register / status flags
    • The flag register is specially designed to contain all the appropriate 1-bit status flags, which are changed as a result of operations involving the arithmetic and logic unit.
  • Other general purpose
    • These registers have no specific purpose, but are generally used for the quick storage of pieces of data that are required later in the program execution.
  • system bus
    • The system bus is a cable which carries data communication between the major components of the computer, including the microprocessor.
    • 80. The system bus consists of three different groups of wiring, called: 1. the data bus, 2. control bus 3. address bus.
    • 81. These all have seperate responsibilities and characteristics:
  • Control Bus
    The control bus carries the signals relating to the control and co-ordination of the various activities across the computer, which can be sent from the control unit within the CPU.
    Different architectures result in differing number of lines of wire within the control bus, as each line is used to perform a specific task.
    For instance, different, specific lines are used for each of read, write and reset requests.
  • 82. Data Bus
    This is used for the exchange of data between the processor, memory and peripherals, and is bi-directional so that it allows data flow in both directions along the wires.
    Again, the number of wires used in the data
    bus (sometimes known as the 'width') can differ.
    Each wire is used for the transfer of signals corresponding to a single bit of binary data. As such, a greater width allows greater amounts of data to be transferred at the same time.
  • 83. Address Bus
    The address bus contains the connections between the microprocessor and memory that carry the signals relating to the addresses which the CPU is processing at that time, such as the locations that the CPU is reading from or writing to.
    The width of the address bus corresponds to the maximum addressing capacity of the bus, or the largest address within memory that the bus can work with.
    The addresses are transferred in binary format, with each line of the address bus carrying a single binary digit. Therefore the maximum address capacity is equal to two to the power of the number of lines present (2^lines).
  • 84. U
    Any query