vads{k.k ,oa vk'oLrhdj.k ekud (SA)-300
vads{k.k esa egRoiw.kZrk
iz'u&1 egRoiw.kZrk ( eVsfj;fyVh) ls D;k vk'k; gsS
mRrj& va...
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Sa$300$(r)

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Aseem Trivedi's Notes in Hindi

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Sa$300$(r)

  1. 1. vads{k.k ,oa vk'oLrhdj.k ekud (SA)-300 vads{k.k esa egRoiw.kZrk iz'u&1 egRoiw.kZrk ( eVsfj;fyVh) ls D;k vk'k; gsS mRrj& vads{k.k ekud 300 ds vuqlkj fdlh Hkh en ;k lwpuk dks egRoiw.kZ dgk tk;sxk ;fn mldk feF;kdFku foRrh; fooj.kksa ds mi;ksxdrkZ ds foRrh; fu.kZ; dks izHkkfor djrk gSaA vFkkZr oss en ;k lwpuk;sa egRoiw.kZ ugha gSA ftuds feF;kdfFkr gksus ij Hkh mi;ksxdrkZ izHkkfor u gksaA egRoiw.kZ gksus ds fy;s cMzh jkf'k dk gksuk ,d ek= vfuok;Zrk ugha gSA feF;kdFku ds varxZr egRoiw.kZ rF;ksa dk izdVhdj.k ugha gksuk Hkh 'kkfey gksrk gSA tSls fdlh O;olk; esa pkyw O;olk; dh vo/kkj.kk dk yx ikuk vlaHko gS rks mldk izdVhdj.k vko';d gksxk ftlds vHkko esa mi;ksx drkZ Hkzfer gks ldrk gSA iz'u&2 eVsfj;fyVh ,oa vkfMV fjLd esa D;k laca/k gS mRrj& vads{k.k ekud 300 ds vuqlkj eVsfj;fyVh ,oa vkfMV fjLd esa foijhr laca/k gSA vFkkZr en ;k lwpuk dh egRoiw.kZrk ftruh vf/kd gksxh mlds feF;kdfFkr gksrs gq;s idM- esa u vkus dh tksf[ke mruh de gksxh A pwWafd egRoiw.kZ enksa ds lanHkZ esa vads{kd viuh xgu vads{k.k fof/k;ksa dk mi;ksx djrk gS vr% muls feF;kdFku ds idM- esa u vkus dh laHkkouk;sa ux.; gksrh gSaa A nwljh vksj os en ;k lwpuk;sa tks NksVh jkf'k ds gksrs gS ;k de egRoiw.kZ gksrs gSaA muesa feF;kdFku ds gksrs gq;s vads{kd }kjk ugha idM- ikus dh laHkkouk vf/kd gksrh gSA vads{kd viuh vads{k.k fof/k;ksa dh xgurk ] le; lhek rFkk izd`fr fu/kkZfjr djrs le; eVsfj;fyVh vkSj vkfMV fjLd ds bl laca/k ij fo'ks"k /;ku nsrk gSA lkekU;r% ;fn vads{kd de enksa dks egRoiw.kZ ekurk gS rks og bl ckr ls lger gksrk gS fd ,slk djus esa vkfMV fjLd c<- x;h gS ijUrq og bl vkfMV fjLd dks de dj ldrk gSA ;fn og %& • vkarfjd fu;a=.kksa ij fo'okl djus ds fy;s vfrfjDr fof/k;kWa viukdj mldh fo'oluh;rk ds lanHkZ esa vf/kd vads{k.k lk{; izkIr djs ;k fu;a=.kksa ij fo'okl dh lhek de djs ;k • viuh Substantive procedure dh xgurk] le;lhek esa ifjoRkZu dj Detection risk dks de djs tc Hkh vads{kd foRrh; fooj.kksa ij viuh jk; O;Dr djs] rks lHkh Kkr lek;ksftr =qfV;ksa ds ;ksx ij eVsfj;fyVh ,oa vkfMV fjLd ds bl laca/k dks mls ij[kuk pkfg;sA iz'u&3 eVsfj;fyVh ,oa vkfMV fjLd dk ;g laca/k vads{kd ds fy;s fdl rjg mi;ksxh gSA mRrj& vads{kd eVsfj;fyVh dh igpku jkf'k ds de ;k T;knk gksus ds lkFk&lkFk lwpuk ;k en dh izd`fr ls Hkh djrk gSA lkekU;r% vads{kd ls vis{kk dh tkrh gS fd og ;g laca/k fuEu fLFkfr;ksa esa ykxw djsxk& • viuh vads{k.k fof/k;ksa dh le;lhek] xgurk rFkk izd`fr ds fu/kkZj.k esa • feF;kdFkuksa ds foRrh; fooj.k ij izHkko ds ewY;kadu ds le; vads{kd dh vads{k.k fof/k;kWa eVsfj;fyVh ysoy ij fuHkZj gksrh gSA tks en ;k lwpuk;sa eVsfj;y ekuh tkrh gSA muds lanHkZ esa vads{k.k fof/k;kWa T;knk xgu gksrh gSA ,slk gks ldrk gS fd vads{k.k dh 'kq:vkr esa vads{k.k }kjk fu/kkZfjr eVsfj;fyVh ysoy ,oa vads{k.k ds nkSjku ;k var esa eVsfj;fyVh ysoy esa fHkUurk gksA vads{kd vius eVsfj;fyVh ysoy dks vads{k.k ds nkSjku izkIr lwpukvksa ls lwpukvksa dks lek;ksftr djrk jgrk gSA lkekU;r% vads{k.k dh 'kq:vkr esa eVsfj;fyVh ysoy dks de j[kdj vads{k.k tksf[ke dks fu;af=r fd;k tkrk gSA vads{kd }kjk eVsfj;fyVh ,oa vkfMV fjLd ds laca/k dk fjiksfVZax ds le; Hkh /;ku j[kk tkrk gSaSA ;fn vlek;ksftr =qfV;ksa dk ;ksx eVsfj;fyVh ysoy ls vf/kd gks tkrk gS rks vads{kd izca/k ls lek;kstu dh ekWax dj ldrk gSA ;fn izca/k lek;kstu ls euk dj ns rks vads{kd dks ,slh eukgh dk viuh vads{k.k fjiksVZ ij iM-us okys izHkko dk vkadyu djuk pkfg;sA;fn vads{kd pkgs rks og ,d e;kZfnr ;k foijhr jk; Hkh O;Dr dj ldrk gSA

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