Adverbs are words that modify:
•a verb (He drove slowly. — How did he
•an adjective (He drove a very fast car. —
How fast was his car?)
•another adverb (She moved quite slowly
down the aisle. — How slowly did she move?)
• a whole sentence (Luckily, we didn’t
miss the plane).
• These ones are called comment or
• Adverbs often tell us when, where,
why, or under what conditions (how)
something happens or happened.
• Adverbs frequently end in –ly.
• However, many words and phrases not
ending in -ly serve an adverbial function
and an -ly ending is not a guarantee that a
word is an adverb. The words lovely,
lonely, motherly, friendly, lively, costly,
for instance, are adjectives:
e.g.That lovely woman has a friendly
KINDS OF ADVERBS
She moved slowly and spoke quietly.
She has lived on the island all her
She still lives there now.
She takes the boat to the mainland
She often goes by herself.
She tries to get back before dark.
It's starting to get dark now.
She left early.
• COMMENT adverbs: they give the
speaker’s opinion. e.g. Luckily, clearly,
• DEGREE adverbs: they describe how
much something is done or to modify an
adjective. e.g. So, very, quite, really.
POSITIONS OF ADVERBS
One of the characteristics of adverbs
is their ability to move around in a
ADVERBS OF MANNER
• They are particularly flexible in this
• Solemnly the president addressed
• The minister solemnly addressed her
• The minister addressed her
• They usually go after the verb or phrase.
ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY
• They usually come before the main verb:
I never get up before nine o'clock.
• Or between the auxiliary verb and the main verb:
I have rarely written to my brother without a
• But they come before the verb used to:
I always used to see him at his summer home.
• And they go after the verb to be.
He is always late.
Cont. Frequency adverbs
• Sometimes, usually, normally,
occasionally can go at the beginning
of the sentence for emphasis.
• E.g. Sometimes I have to do my
homework after dinner.
ADVERBS OF DEGREE
• They normally go before an adjective
or an adverb. E.g Extremely/
• She’s extremely talented.
• He’s quite friendly.
Cont. ADVERBS OF DEGREE
• A bit, a little, much and a lot, go
after a verb or expression:
• e.g. I read a little every day.
Do you go out much?
Cont. ADVERBS OF DEGREE
• Almost and nearly go before the main
• I have almost finished my homework.
• He nearly fell over when he was
coming down the stairs.
• They usually go at the beginning of a
sentence or clause.
• e.g. Apparently, she had to wait for
more than 2 hours.
• Unfortunately, the weather was
terrible during their trip.
• Most other adverbs go in midposition (before the main verb).
• For example:
• I just need ten more minutes.
• She didn’t even say goodbye.
• Where’s Clara? -She’s probably gone
• Do you often go to Paris? – Not
really, I’ve only been there twice.
• Virginia also went to the party.
ORDER OF ADVERBS
• There is a basic order in which
adverbs will appear when there is
more than one.
Beth swims enthusiastically in the pool
every morning before dawn.
Dad walks impatiently into town every
afternoon before supper.