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OPEN KNOWLEDGE Paola Di Maio, University of Strathclyde OKCon 28 March 2009, UCL Spatial Institute <ul><li>CONTENTS: </li></ul><ul><li>About ‘openness’ </li></ul><ul><li>Openness and Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Ontology, and Open Ontology </li></ul><ul><li>Shared Vocabularies as a Path to Opening Up Knowledge Representation </li></ul>
ABOUT OPENNESS 'OPEN' phenomenon very interesting! Hard to define: what is openness? The systems thinking view of openness is: “ An open system is a state in which a system continuously interacts with its environment. Open systems are those that maintain their state and exhibit the characteristics of openness (wikipedia).”
Openness can be defined by: 1.context dependency (science, politics, education, technology etc) 2.multidimensionality 3. less constraints 4. flexible boundaries 5. Degree of Interaction Openness is enabled by : Technologies such as internet, web Networked technologies help to maximise and make use of interactions OPENNESS REQUIRES SUITABLE INFORMATION ARCHITECTURES
ONTOLOGIES - Ontologies are used in support of complex information systems development and management. - They consist of semantic and logical constraints defined by: domain boundaries, axioms, classes, relations, vocabularies. Traditionally, they have been 'authoritative' and 'top down'. - Trend Toward OPEN ONTOLOGY trend (PROJECTS: myontology, viewbased ontology, various folksonomies, oOR etc) A definition of Open Ontology: http://p2pfoundation.net/Open_Ontology
OPEN ONTOLOGY REQUIREMENTS / 1 How can you tell if an ontology is open? It should: • declare what high level knowledge (upper level ontology) it references • state explicitly the 'sources of knowledge' (aka , provenance of axioms) • state what kind of reasoning/inference supports/it is based on, support queries via natural language as well as machine language, • be visible, searchable and support queries via a Web based interface that does not require any plug-in and API for users to download, • allow users to provide feedback that should be taken into account in subsequent iterations, be documented and annotated, and available in different file formats including Open Document
OPEN ONTOLOGY REQUIREMENTS/2 More Possibilities: It should • be 'easy to understand' by generic users without specialized skills and guidelines should be provided as how it can be used to support development practices, • be implementation and platform independent; this means, for example that an ontology should not only exist encoded as OWL/RDF but expressed and formalized in a format that can be understood and reused by alternative ontology languages • support one view of the world if required, and allow for simultaneous multiple views, meaning that it should aim to be perfectly elastic, flexible and adaptable, • take into account language and cultural diversity, and corresponding different value systems and knowledge representation requirements, • be supported by tutorials and educational materials at different levels of specialization
<ul><li>SHARED VOCABULARIES </li></ul><ul><li>Common, agreed definitions of terms in use by a community </li></ul><ul><li>Shared understanding of roles and properties identified with the terms in use </li></ul><ul><li>2. Semantic mappings/clusters among different vocabularies </li></ul><ul><li>3. Definition of schemas and formats </li></ul><ul><li>4. Accessible, interpretable, usable </li></ul><ul><li>See Vocamp.org (open community!) </li></ul><ul><li>Knoodl.com (emergency management vocabulary part the of EIIF W3C Incubator group) </li></ul>
MY CURRENT PROJECTS <ul><li>Networked Architectures </li></ul><ul><li>Systems of Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Open Ontologies </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Reuse and Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Human Aspects of Semantic Technologies </li></ul>
<ul><li>Keep the open flowing </li></ul><ul><li>Let's talk </li></ul><ul><li>Find me on Linkedin, Facebook Skype </li></ul><ul><li>myNamedotsurname @ gmail </li></ul>
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